Several types of colonial rule in Africa and the factors that aided colonialism in Africa.


Several types of colonial rule in Africa and the factors that aided colonialism in Africa.

1. Economic Companies: European nations early in colonial adventure allowed establishment of private companies that were granted large territories to administer in Africa formed by Businessmen interested in exploiting natural resources companies set up systems of taxation and labour recruitment

2. Direct Rule

Model used by the French, Belgians, Germans and Portuguese

-centralized administration (urban centre

-assimilation (civilize African societies)

-did not negotiate governance with indigenous African rulers/governments

-indigenous authorities was subordinated

-divide and rule policies that weakened indigenous power networks and institutions

3. Indirect Rule

 used primarily by the British

 use of indigenous African rulers within framework of colonial administration

 more cooperative model than direct rule

4. Settler Rule

 colonialism where Europeans imposed direct rule on their colonies

 significant numbers of immigrants settled in colonies

 Settlers planned to make colonies permanent home

 Settlers demanded special political and economic rights and protection

 Security and prosperity for settlers on economic exploitation and political oppression of African population

 Settler colonies include South Africa, South/Northern Rhodesia (Zambia/Zimbabwe), Angola, Mozambique, South West Africa Namibia)

 These settlers were from Holland, Britain, Germany and Portugal


Factors that Aided Colonialism

 Colonialism is a political system in which an external nation takes complete control of a territory in another area of the world

 19th century was a time of industrialization in Europe

 Which meant that the motivation for colonialism was to seek raw materials and market

 Another motivation for colonialism is the competition between European nations (wars, colonial expansion led to scramble for Africa 1885-1910)

 Another motivation for colonialism is racial Hierarchy> many Europeans viewed themselves as the most advanced civilization in the world and some saw it as a mission to enlighten and civilize people in rest of the world( feeling of racial superiority and responsibility- see Rudyard Kipling’s Whiteman Burden)

 Christian missionary activity lend support and legitimacy European control provide political environment that would facilitate missionary activity

 Another motivation for colonialism is willingness of African leaders to sign treaties for various reasons including benefit to gain from European alliances

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