Communism: Definition, Meaning, History, Types, Characteristics, Examples, Communist Countries & Facts

 

Communism : Definition, Meaning, History, Types, Characteristics, Examples, Communist Countries & Facts


Meaning and Definition of Communism

Communism, political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production for instance mines mills, and factories and the natural resources of a society. Communism is thus a form of socialism a higher and more advanced form, according to its advocates. Exactly how communism differs from socialism has long been a matter of debate, but the distinction rests largely on the communists’ adherence to the revolutionary socialism of Karl Marx.

The meaning of communism can be very difficult indeed to determine. We are confronted with a bewildering array of labels and qualifications, Marxism, Leninism, Marxism-Leninism, Maoism, Titoism, Council Communism, Anarchist Communism, and Christian Communism etc. Things get even more confusing when you add the word ‘Socialism’ to the mix.

In the sense the words ‘Socialism’ and ‘Socialist’ has no substantial difference between the words ‘Communism’ and ‘Communist’. Both sets of words belong to a common tradition arising in its modern form in Western Europe in the period between the late 1820s and the late 1840s.

A distinction is sometimes made in which ‘Socialism’ is conceived as a transitional stage upon the road to a final destination known as ‘Communism’. Other distinctions have been made in which the word ‘Socialism’ is aligned rather more with representative democracy than with the form of working class government known as ‘the Dictatorship of the Proletariat’.

Indeed, phrases like ‘Parliamentary Socialism’ and ‘Democratic Socialism’ have also been widely used by those who wish merely to modify or restrain the operation of market forces by various forms of state ownership and regulation, and by the institution of social insurance and the establishment of welfare systems. At any rate it is as well to be aware of the difficulties inherent in using the terms ‘Socialist and Socialism’ terms which can be used to describe Gordon Brown, or at least the mainstream of the British Labor Party, and those socialists currently engaged in building the Socialist Workers’ Party.

The words ‘Communist’ and ‘Communism’ present similar difficulties, not least because the socialists building the Socialist Workers’ Party would cheerfully agree that they are indeed Communists, just as readily as the leaders of the Chinese People’s Republic continue to call their party-state apparatus ‘Communist’.

In a similar fashion many Anarchists are Communists and would count it as no disgrace to be called ‘Socialists’. Consequently, there is no definitional (or dictionary) solution to this problem. Nothing short of learning as much about the political history of the working class and of the labor movement as you can will suffice. With these caveats in place, deploying the words Socialist and Communist, interchangeably, as terms for those struggling for a transitional form of society destined eventually fully to realize the age-old communist dream of equality and social harmony in the abolition of both class divisions and of the state, to which it is argued, these class divisions give rise.

Consequently, the plan for Communist society presupposes or assumes the democratic allocation of all resources. Raw materials, fuel, machinery, vehicles, buildings, components, finished goods, and so on, would be allocated democratically according to rational plans drawn up by the workers’ assemblies. The principal resource of any society, its human labor power, would, in the absence of a labor market, also become the subject of democratic decision-making. Wages would be fixed at rates determined by the assemblies. Jobs, and the requisite levels and training and education, would be distributed democratically according to the plan. The chaos and vagaries of the labor market with its accompanying waste and unemployment would be replaced by full employment and the direction of labor according to the plan.

Communism, which means participatory democracy in which the social determination of necessity and the social allocation of all material and human resources will, according to Communists, of necessity replace the drive for profits, the disorder and waste brought by the market, and the war and ecological disaster that is an inevitable consequence of capitalist competition.

In short, Communism means participatory democracy in which both the social determination of necessity, and the social allocation of all material and human resources, will replace both private property and the operation of the market. This Communist form of participatory democracy is conceived as an expression of the popular or general will and rests upon a mode of universal equality achieved through the abolition of private property. In principle all will be equal because all will be property less. All will, according to their capacity and ability, play an equal part in the production of social wealth. As a consequence, all will have an equal share, according to their needs, in the wealth of society.


History of communism

According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; since the 20th century, Ancient Rome has also been discussed, among them thinkers such as Aristotele, Cicero, Demosthenes, Plato, and Tacitus, with Plato in particular being discussed as a possible communist or socialist theorist, or as the first author to give communism a serious consideration. The 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia (modern-day Iran) has been described as communistic for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, criticizing the institution of private property, and striving to create an egalitarian society. At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of Scripture. In the Medieval Christian Church, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. As summarized by Janzen Rod and Max Stanton, the Hutterites believed in strict adherence to biblical principles, church discipline, and practiced a form of communism. The Hutterites "established in their communities a rigorous system of Ordnungen, which were codes of rules and regulations that governed all aspects of life and ensured a unified perspective. As an economic system, communism was attractive to many of the peasants who supported social revolution in sixteenth century central Europe. This link was highlighted in one of Karl Marx's early writings; Marx stated that Christ is the intermediary unto whom man unburdens all his divinity, all his religious bonds, so the state is the mediator unto which he transfers all his Godlessness, all his human liberty.

Thomas Müntzer led a large Anabaptist communist movement during the German Peasants' War, which Friedrich Engels analyzed in his 1850 work The Peasant War in Germany. The Marxist communist ethos that aims for unity reflects the Christian Universalist teaching that humankind is one and that there is only one god who does not discriminate among people. Thomas More, who’s Utopia portrayed a society based on common ownership of property

Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his 1516 treatise titled Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason and virtue.

Marxist communist theoretician Karl Kautsky, who popularized Marxist communism in Western Europe more than any other thinker apart from Engels, published Thomas More and His Utopia, a work about More, whose ideas could be regarded as "the foregleam of Modern Socialism" according to Kautsky.

In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein stated that several groups during the English Civil War (especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Abbé de Mably, Jean Meslier, Étienne-Gabriel Morelly, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. During the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism emerged as a political doctrine under the auspices of Gracchus Babeuf, Restif de la Bretonne, and Sylvain Maréchal, all of whom can be considered the progenitors of modern communism according to James H. Billington.

In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony, Indiana, in 1825, and Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States, such as Brook Farm in 1841.

In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.

 

Marxist communism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society per se and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism but does not model an ideal society based on the design of intellectuals, whereby communism is seen as a state of affairs to be established based on any intelligent design; rather, it is a non-idealist attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life.

 

Contemporary Communism

With the fall of the communist governments in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, the influence of state-based Marxist–Leninist ideologies in the world was weakened, but there are still many communist movements of various types and sizes around the world. Three other communist nations, particularly those in eastern Asia such as the People's Republic of China, Vietnam and Laos, all moved toward market economies, but without major privatization of the state sector during the 1980s and 1990s (see socialism with Chinese characteristics and doimoi for more details). 

Spain, France, Portugal and Greece have very publicly strong communist movements that play an open and active leading role in the vast majority of their labor marches and strikes as well as also anti-austerity protests, all of which are large, pronounced events with much visibility.

Worldwide marches on International Workers Day sometimes give a clearer picture of the size and influence of current communist movements, particularly within Europe.

Cuba has recently emerged from the crisis sparked by the fall of the Soviet Union given the growth in its volume of trade with its new allies Venezuela and China (the former of whom has recently adopted socialism of the 21st century according to Hugo Chavez). Various other countries throughout South and Latin America have also taken similar shifts to more clearly socialistic policies and rhetoric in phenomenon academics is calling the pink tide.

North Korea claims that its success in avoiding the downfall of socialism is a result of its homegrown ideology of Juche which it adopted in the 1970s, replacing Marxism–Leninism. Cuba has an ambassador to North Korea and China still protects North Korean territorial integrity even as it simultaneously refuses to supply the state with material goods or other significant assistance.

In Nepal, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) leader Man Mohan Adhikari briefly became Prime Minister and national leader from 1994 to 1995 and the Maoist guerrilla leader Prachanda was elected Prime Minister by the Constituent Assembly of Nepal in 2008. Prachanda has since been deposed as Prime Minister, leading the Maoists to abandon their legalistic approach and return to their typical street actions and militancy and to lead sporadic general strikes using their quite substantial influence on the Nepalese labor movement. These actions have oscillated between mild and intense, only the latter of which tends to make world news. They consider Prachanda's removal to be unjust. Since the 2008 Nepal has been ruled by a coalition of communist parties: Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) and Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) which they merged in 2018 in the Nepal Communist Party

The previous national government of India depended on the parliamentary support of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and CPI (M) leads the state government in Kerala. The armed wing of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) is fighting a war against the government of India and is active in some parts of the country, Indian government has been successful in eliminating insurgency to quite an extent. In Cyprus, the veteran communist Dimitris Christofias of AKEL won the 2008 presidential election.

In Ukraine and Russia, the communists came second in the 2002 and 2003 elections, respectively. The party remains strong in Russia, but the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election following the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea resulted in the loss of its 32 members and no parliamentary representation by the Communist Party of Ukraine. The party has been banned since 2015.

In the Czech Republic, the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia came third in the 2002 elections as did the Communist Party of Portugal in 2005.

In South Africa, the South African Communist Party (SACP) is a member of the tripartite alliance alongside the African National Congress and the Congress of South African Trade Unions. Sri Lanka has communist ministers in their national governments.

In Zimbabwe, former President Robert Mugabe of the Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front, the country's longstanding leader, was a professed communist.

Colombia has been in the midst of a civil war which has been waged since 1966 between the Colombian government and aligned right-wing paramilitaries against two communist guerrilla groups, namely the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia People's Army (FARC–EP) and the National Liberation Army (ELN).

The Revolutionary Communist Party, USA led by its chairman Bob Avakian currently organizes for a revolution in the United States to overthrow the capitalist system and replace it with a socialist state.

As of the early 2020s, the Philippines are still experiencing a low-scale guerrilla insurgency by the New People's Army, the armed wing of the outlawed Communist Party of the Philippines. Actions of an armed group likely affiliated with NPA resulted in eight casualties after a gunfight with the Philippine military in 2021

 

Types of Communism

The following are the types of communism:

1. Marxist communism: Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.  Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist thought that emerged after the death of Marx and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until World War I in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism.

The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development (advances in technology in the productive forces) is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations, and that social systems and their relations (e.g. feudalism, capitalism and so on) become contradictory and inefficient as the productive forces develop, which results in some form of social revolution arising in response to the mounting contradictions. This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new economic systems.

As a term, orthodox Marxism refers to the methods of historical materialism and of dialectical materialism and not the normative aspects inherent to classical Marxism, without implying dogmatic adherence to the results of Marx's investigations.

2. Leninism: Leninism is a political theory for the organization of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism. Developed by and named for the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, Leninism comprises political and economic theories developed from orthodox Marxism and Lenin's interpretations of Marxist theories, including his original theoretical contributions such as his analysis of imperialism, principles of party organization and the implementation of socialism through revolution and reform thereafter, for practical application to the socio-political conditions of the Russian Empire of the early 20th century.

 

3. Stalinism: Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from 1927 to 1953 by Stalin. Stalinist policies and ideas that were developed in the Soviet Union included rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, collectivization of agriculture and subordination of the interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), deemed by Stalinism to be the leading vanguard party of communist revolution at the time.

4. Maoism: Maoism is the Marxist–Leninist trend of communism associated with Mao Zedong and was mostly practiced within the People's Republic of China. Khrushchev's reforms heightened ideological differences between China and the Soviet Union, which became increasingly apparent in the 1960s. As the Sino-Soviet split in the international communist movement turned toward open hostility, China portrayed itself as a leader of the underdeveloped world against the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union.

Parties and groups that supported the Communist Party of China in their criticism against the new Soviet leadership proclaimed themselves as anti-revisionist and denounced the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the parties aligned with it as revisionist "capitalist roaders". The Sino-Soviet split resulted in divisions amongst communist parties around the world. Notably, the Party of Labour of Albania sided with the People's Republic of China. Effectively, the communist party under Mao Zedong's leadership became the rallying forces of a parallel international communist tendency. The ideology of the Chinese communist party, Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought (generally referred to as Maoism), was adopted by many of these groups.


5.  Deng Xiaoping Theory:  Drawing inspiration from Lenin's NEP, Dengism is a political and economic ideology first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. The theory does not claim to reject Marxism–Leninism or Mao Zedong Thought, but instead it seeks to adapt them to the existing socio-economic conditions of China. Deng also stressed opening China to the outside world, the implementation of one country, two systems and through the phrase "seek truth from facts" an advocation of political and economic pragmatism.

As reformist communism and a branch of Maoism, Dengism is often criticized by traditional Maoists. Dengists believe that isolated in our current international order and with an extremely underdeveloped economy it is first and foremost necessary to bridge the gap between China and Western capitalism as quickly as possible in order for socialism to be successful (see the theory of primary stage of socialism).

6. Prachanda Path: Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Prachanda Path is the ideological line of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). It is considered to be a further development of Marxism–Leninism and Maoism. It is named after the leader of the CPN(M), Pushpa Kamal Dahal, commonly known as Prachanda. Prachanda Path was proclaimed in 2001 and its formulation was partially inspired by the Shining Path which refers to its ideological line as Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Gonzalo Thought. Prachanda Path does not make an ideological break with Marxism–Leninism or Maoism, but rather it is an extension of these ideologies based on the political situation of Nepal. The doctrine came into existence after it was realized that the ideology of Marxism–Leninism and Maoism could not be practiced as done in the past, therefore Prachanda Path based on the circumstances of Nepalese politics was adopted by the party.

7. Titoism: Is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union. Elements of Titoism are characterized by policies and practices based on the principle that in each country, the means of attaining ultimate communist goals must be dictated by the conditions of that particular country rather than by a pattern set in another country. During Josip Broz Tito's era, this specifically meant that the communist goal should be pursued independently of and often in opposition to the policies of the Soviet Union. The term was originally meant as a pejorative and was labeled by Moscow as a heresy during the period of tensions between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia known as the Inform biro period from 1948 to 1955. Unlike the rest of Eastern Bloc which fell under Stalin's influence post-World War II, Yugoslavia remained independent from Moscow due to the strong leadership of Marshal Tito and the fact that the Yugoslav Partisans liberated Yugoslavia with only limited help from the Red Army. It became the only country in the Balkans to resist pressure from Moscow to join the Warsaw Pact and remained "socialist, but independent" right up until the collapse of Soviet socialism in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Throughout his time in office, Josip Broz Tito prided himself on Yugoslavia's independence from the Soviet Bloc, with Yugoslavia never accepting full membership of the Comecon and his open rejection of many aspects of Stalinism as the most obvious manifestations of this.

8. Eurocommunism: Was a revisionist trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties which said they had developed a theory and practice of social transformation more relevant for Western Europe. During the Cold War, they sought to undermine the influence of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It was especially prominent in France, Italy and Spain. Since the early 1970s, the term Eurocommunism was used to refer to the ideology of moderate, reformist communist parties in Western Europe. These parties did not support the Soviet Union and denounced its policies. Such parties were politically active and electorally significant in France, Italy and Spain.

9. Council communism: is a movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s, whose primary organization was the Communist Workers Party of Germany. Council communism continues today as a theoretical and activist position within both libertarian Marxism and libertarian socialism. The core principle of council communism is that the government and the economy should be managed by Workers' councils which are composed of delegates elected at workplaces and recallable at any moment. As such, council communists oppose state-run authoritarian state socialism and state capitalism. They also oppose the idea of a revolutionary party since council communists believe that a revolution led by a party will necessarily produce a party dictatorship. Council communists support a workers' democracy, produced through a federation of workers' councils.

10. Anarcho-communism: Is a libertarian theory of anarchism and communism which advocates the abolition of the state, private property and capitalism in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of voluntary associations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle From each according to his ability, to each according to his need, anarcho-communism differs from Marxism in that it rejects its view about the need for a state socialism phase prior to establishing communism. Peter Kropotkin, the main theorist of anarcho-communism, stated that a revolutionary society should transform itself immediately into a communist society that it should go immediately into what Marx had regarded as the "more advanced, completed, phase of communism". In this way, it tries to avoid the reappearance of class divisions and the need for a state to be in control.[

11.  Christian communism: is a theological and political theory based upon the view that the teachings of Jesus Christ compel Christians to support religious communism as the ideal social system. Although there is no universal agreement on the exact dates when communistic ideas and practices in Christianity began, many Christian communists state that evidence from the Bible suggests that the first Christians, including the apostles, established their own small communist society in the years following Jesus' death and resurrection. 

Many advocates of Christian communism state that it was taught by Jesus and practiced by the apostles themselves. Some historians confirm its existence. Christian communism enjoys some support in Russia. Russian musician Yegor Letov was an outspoken Christian communist and in a 1995 interview was quoted as saying: "Communism is the Kingdom of God on Earth.

 
Characteristics of Communism

1. Born as a critique of capitalism

2. Introduce the concepts of structure and superstructure

3. The principle of class conflict

4. Alienation as a social problem

5. Proposes the elimination of private property

6. It is anti-individualistic

7. Bourgeoisie as the main enemy of the people

8. Autonomous society as a final goal

9. Communist regimes self-promote as people’s conscience

10. promotes a one-party system

11. State capitalism

12. Totalitarianism

 

1. Born as a critique of capitalism: Communist thought emerged as a critique of liberal capitalism developed in Europe since the industrial revolution. This form of capitalism involved the transformation of the modes of production and, consequently, of the social order. The consolidation of the upper bourgeoisie as the dominant class was one of the most important transformations. However, the emergence of the working class, mass society, the absolutization of capital as a social value and growing social inequalities, were also significant.

2. Introduces the concepts of structure and superstructure: According to Marx and Engels, a structure and a superstructure can be distinguished in capitalist society. The structure would be made up of society and the productive apparatus. The superstructure corresponds to the institutions that control the social imaginary (culture) and justify inequality. These are the capitalist state, the educational system, academic institutions, religion, etc.

3. The principle of class conflict: The theory is justified by the existence of class struggle and the need to achieve socio economic equality. If the upper bourgeoisie is the owner of the means of production, the proletariat is the labor force. Thus, the latter is subordinate to the power of the former.

According to communist thought, under capitalism the proletariat has no control over the means of production, nor over the profits it generates. This leads to exploitationoppression and alienation. Therefore, there is an inherent tension in the system that must be released through revolution and the establishment of a new order.

4. Alienation as a social problem: Communism maintains that alienation is a social problem and not strictly individual. The doctrine conceives it as the naturalization and ideological justification of social inequality, exploitation and oppression. Alienation is promoted by the dominant culture and is responsible for the proletariat not becoming aware of its condition. This in turn favors the perpetuation of the capitalist system. Therefore, the revolution aims to awaken social consciousness.

5. Proposes the elimination of private property: In order for class equality and the end of exploitation to be possible, private property of the means of production must be eliminated. This in turn translates into workers’ control over them through unions and collective grassroots organizations. Since there are no owners, neither exploitation nor inequality can exist.

6. It is anti-individualistic: Communism opposes individualism, since it makes class consciousness a fundamental principle and interprets individualism as a capitalist trait. For this reason, every individual is seen as an expression of his class. However, only the proletarian class is considered as a genuine representation of the “people” and the common good. In this sense, social self-promotion and individual economic freedom are not welcome.

7. Bourgeoisie as the main enemy of the people: Communists see the bourgeoisie as the enemy. This is not limited only to the upper bourgeoisie, owners of the means of production. But also to the medium and small bourgeoisie that normally occupy state, academic, professional, cultural and religious institutions. They are held responsible for the ideological formation of capitalism (superstructure).

8. Autonomous society as a final goal: From a theoretical point of view, communism maintains that society will eventually learn to regulate itself. There would be no need for the intervention of the state or ruling elite. No historical experience of a communist regime has reached this level.

9. Communist regimes self-promote as people’s conscience: Since becoming an autonomous society is a long process, it is up to the revolutionary state to guarantee the distribution of wealth. Communist regimes seek to act, therefore, as the conscience of the people. These regimes are the only valid interpreters of their needs and the only administrators of their goods (sole distributors of wealth).

10. promotes a one-party system: According to communist theory, an egalitarian society is a product of a unitary political culture. This in turn is a justification for rejecting ideological diversity and promoting one-party system. However, since communist regimes promote themselves as popular and democratic systems, the single-party system may not result in the outlawing of opposition parties. Opposition is usually demoralized, persecuted and cornered.

11. State capitalism: In some communist models, the expropriated means of production remain under the absolute control of the state, which also controls the unions. For this reason, there is a tendency of communist regimes to lead to state capitalism, which acts as a monopolizing entity.

12. Totalitarianism: Communist regimes tend to penetrate all areas of social life by virtue of their anti-individualistic principles. Thus, in communist regimes it is common to observe control and censorship of communications and educational systems. Interference of the State in family matters; one-party system, political persecution, and the prohibition of religion are also common. It is also characterized by the nationalization of the media, production, banking and financial systems and the perpetuation of the ruling elite in power.

 

Communist Countries

Moreover Russia, communism as a political system was also implemented in countries like: North Korea – 1948, China – 1949, North Vietnam – 1945, South Vietnam after reunification – 1976, Cuba – 1959, Laos – 1975 and Moldovan Republic of Transnistria - 1990

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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