What is organizing? Conditions and Advantages


What is organizing? Conditions and Advantages

We are taking again another function of management which is called organizing in our present page. This is one of the functions of management where the manager is expected to bring his creativity to bear. He has to be original and innovative in the discharge of this function.

It would be recalled that in our page where we treated business objectives and the necessary skills a manager needs to have in other to satisfactorily perform his functions, design skill is one of those skills. And the design skill is very much needed in the function of organizing.

The management functions of forecasting and planning, we did highlight the importance of forecasting to the manager. We also saw the features of planning, the steps in planning and decision making, the advantages of planning and the limitations of planning. We emphasized the fact that other management functions cannot take place until planning has been effectively carried out. And after forecasting and planning, the next logical function of management to follow is organizing.

Organizing has many areas to cover. As a result, we shall be starting with the nature of organizing, types of organization and the activities of organizing. Other dimensions associated with organizing will be covered in subsequent post of this course.


What is organizing?

Organizing can be thought of as:

(a) Identification and classification of required activities necessary for the accomplishment of the objectives of the organization;

(b) The grouping of the activities identified in `a'

(c) The assignment of the activities which have been grouped (i.e each group of activities) to a manager;

(d) Provision of commensurate authority to the manager so that he can be able to supervise the group of activities that has been

assigned to him, and

(e) Co-ordination which ensures that the group of activities assigned to a manager has a link with other groups of activities assigned to other managers in the organization.

Conditions for Organizing

In business or government or even in football there are people. The people are there because they have some duties to perform. And these duties are necessary so that the objective(s) for establishing such organizations can be fulfilled. We call such duties roles. Every position has roles and the person occupying the position must play his role otherwise he has no business being there. But for an organization role to be meaningful, there are conditions that must exist. The first condition is that there must be objective. I hope you can still recollect all what we said in our previous discussion on management objective including of course the features of good business objective. The second condition that must exist is that there should be a clear idea concerning the activities or the duties that must be performed. There is no point creating a role without the accompanying duties necessary to accomplish the objective(s).

The third condition is the authority that the person occupying a position must have which he uses to perform his duties. This is necessary so that at any point in time he knows what at any point in time he knows what he has to do to accomplish the goals. The last condition is that the person needs to be supplied with the necessary tools and information needed for good performance of the role.


Advantages of Organizing

Having explained briefly what is organizing you can easily see some of the advantages associated with it. By creating the different roles that make up the structure of an organization arise some definite advantages.

(a) The environment, that is, the internal environment is made clear.

There is a focus of what the objective is, and the need to contribute one's quota toward the realization of the objective.

(a) Organizing makes it possible to determine who is to do what. The marketing manager through organizing, for example, knows he is to perform marketing activities such, as market and marketing researches, segmentation, pricing, promotion among others. He is not employed to do engineering work because that aspect of the organizational role belongs to another manager entirely.

(c) Organizing again makes it possible to identify who is responsible for what result. Even though the marketing department has to perform marketing activities, it is the marketing manager that is accountable to a higher manager all issues relating to marketing. Below the marketing manager, there are other employees reporting to him. These other employees must also give account to the marketing manger and to another manager, outside the marketing department.

(d) Removes obstacles: Through proper organizing all obstacles are removed. They are obstacles because they not allow do good performance. And the obstacles arise due to confusion and uncertainties which arise because of improper or faulty organizing. If personnel in the accounting department are also to report to the marketing department and the work of personnel department assigned to production department will definitely create problems. These problems in the forms of confusions, anger, frustrations, and uncertainties among others are drastically reduced through the management function of organizing.

(e) It makes it possible for smooth decision making network. We have said it earlier that a manager takes decisions. But he cannot take a decision if there is confusion and uncertainty surrounding the environment under which he is managing. He may not know what he is going to decide on and the importance of his decisions to the organization. But with proper organizing, a conducive environment would have been created under which the manager has to make his decisions.

(f) Presence of communication network: In an organization, nothing would be done without communication. Decision making involves communication; forecasting and planning cannot be done in the absence of communication. In fact, no management function can be performed in the absence of communication which can be oral or written or nonverbal. Communication exists between managers, between managers and their subordinates, between managers and their superior officers and so on. All these create network of communication. And the network must be properly designed so that there will be free flow of communication to and from all the position in the organization.

What is Organization?

The term "Organization" is one word that people use loosely. In one sense, some people look at the word as including all the behaviors of the people that work in an establishment. Some other people regard organization as the total system of social and cultural relationships. Still others equate an organization with an enterprise, such as Guinness Nigeria Plc, Fan Milk of Nigeria Plc among others. 

We are going to regard organization throughout our courses in management as the formal internal structure of roles or positions that exist in an establishment. We have already seen that people who work together must fill and perform some roles.

And these roles that people are asked to do, somebody must sit down and design the roles deliberately. This is necessary so that the desired activities are done and all the activities are fitted together so that people can work smoothly.


Types of Organization

In management there are two types of organizations. But these types of organization are found in organizations. These types of organizations are simply called formal organization and informal organization.

1. Formal Organization

A formal organization which is a social system has its roles deliberately created so that the objectives of the organization can be achieved. Consequently there features which are associated with formal organizations are:

(a) There must be policies and objectives. These policies must be consciously created. And there must be verifiable objectives which are formulated taking the policies into consideration. These objectives are not only for the entire organization but also for the departments and sections.

(b) The activities of individuals in a formal organization are coordinated. This means that one activity must be linked up with another activity. Through this process the entire activities being carried out in the organization move in the same direction.

(c) The persons in a formal organization must be able to communicate with one another through the appropriate channels which have been created. Consequently, the issue of keeping malice with a fellow worker(s) is ruled out because nothing works in a formal organization without communication taking place.

(d) The employees in a formal organization must share a purpose.

And the purpose is the reason why the organization is in existence. Such purpose is usually reflected in the mission statement of the organization.

(e) The workers in a formal organization on the receipt of necessary directive from their manager must be willing to act. But in acting, it should not be on individual level; the whole workers must cooperate with one another in their actions.


2. Informal Organization

The informal organization is a network of personal and social relations not established or required by the formal organization but arising spontaneously as people associate or come together. That is why informal organizations exist in a formal organization. From here, we can see the features of an informal organization which are:

(a) The association exists merely as social interactions.

(b) There is no common or consciously coordinated joint purpose among members even though they may be contributing to joint result.

(c) Compatibility is a major criterion for such grouping. Since the informal groups exist in a formal group they can assist or interfere with the enterprise interests.

(d) The form of punishment that the informal group members can give to an erring member is to ostracize him. This means that members of the informal group will refrain from talking and interacting with the member under punishment until he turns a "new leaf".

We have looked at various points relating to organizing. We saw what organizing as a managerial function is, including the conditions that should exist for organizing to be efficient and effective. We highlighted the advantages of organizing with the hope that the points raised will provide necessary incentives for managers to regard this function as important and consciously carry it out. Thereafter, we saw that there are two types of organizations, one necessarily existing in the other. We have the formal and informal organization with the informal organization existing in a formal organization. The features of formal and informal organizations were also highlighted.

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