The Role of Science and Technology in Agriculture


The Role of Science and Technology in Agriculture

Promoting the application of science and technology in agriculture is the foundation to improve the productivity, quality, efficiency and competitiveness of agriculture, contributing to the modernization of agriculture and rural areas, ensuring food security, social security and income enhancement for agricultural producers and traders.

The contribution of science and technology, Vietnam's agricultural industry has always won many great achievements, fulfilling its fundamental role and supporting the country's economy.

Specifically, outstanding results from the application of science and technology in agriculture.

Read On: Agricultural Development: Definition and Characteristics

Major contributions of science and technology in agriculture

The Role of Science and Technology in Agriculture

Consequent upon the desire to increase efficiency in agricultural production, some farmers now specialize in some specific aspects of agriculture, such as poultry, cattle rearing, piggery and cultivation of specific crops.

Thus, science and technology has played a significant role in the areas of mechanization of agricultural production, protection of crops and animals, improvement of soil fertility for increased crop yield, production of disease resistant varieties of crop and species of animals.

Still on the major contributions of science and technology in agriculture:

Let us consider the following.

1. Mechanization of agricultural production:  Mechanization enhances significant improvement in the design and fabrication of agricultural machineries and tools. Cultivation of land is now done with the use of ploughs and harrows. Tractor-driven implements like planters, harvesters etc., are now used in the farm. Besides, simple farm tools like cutlasses, hoes are being modified for increased efficiency.

Battery cages are fabricated for poultry production; recently, with the high cost of procuring conventional metal battery cages wood is now used to build battery cages in Nigeria.

2. Protection of crops and livestock: Various agro-chemicals have been produced by scientists to control pests and diseases of crops and livestock. Insecticides, pesticides, fungicides are used to control the infestation of crops and animals in farms.

Fungus disease in maize is controlled by using fungicides; while herbicides are used to control weeds. Animals are treated in the farm by veterinarians; and vaccination ensures that animals are immunized against diseases.

3. Breeding: High yielding varieties of plants and animals are developed through breeding to increase farmers’ output. Besides, varieties which are resistant to pest and diseases are also produced by scientists; for instance, high yielding varieties of cassava developed by scientists at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is now widely cultivated by farmers in Nigeria.

Artificial Insemination (AI) was developed to effect fertilization in the female animal without being in contact with the male counterpart. This method has the advantage of reducing wastage of sperm, thereby enhancing increased production.

Scientists have developed high yielding cowpeas varieties (such as ire brown) which are resistant to multiple diseases and insects- which reduce grain quality and seed viability, thus making seed unfit for planting.

4. Improvement of soil fertility: Soil scientists have discovered the use of inorganic chemical compounds in replenishing soil minerals. The mineral depleted from the soil due to excessive cropping can be replaced through application of inorganic fertilizers as well as organic manures.

Scientific agricultural systems (crop rotation) have been discovered by scientists to improve farmer’s performance in agricultural productions.

5. Contribute to perfecting the sustainable farming system: The application of advanced, environmentally friendly production processes (such as Viet GAP, Global GAP, etc.) has been increasingly popularized and replicated.

The cultivation techniques and production processes adapted to climate change have also been promoted.

Conclusion on the Role of Science and Technology in Agriculture

 In this article, you have learnt that agricultural development implies sustained improvement, advancement or growth in the various facets of the agricultural sector (i.e. crops and livestock, etc.). 

Thus, there can be agricultural growth without development. Science and technology has also made a major impact in agricultural operations so as to keep pace with socio-economic development.

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