Artificial Respiration and Resuscitation Method


Artificial Respiration and Resuscitation Method

Artificial ventilation which is also known as artificial respiration is a means of assisting or stimulating respiration. This article, dealt with methods and ways of carrying out artificial ventilation if there is pulse and if there is no pulse.

By the end of this post, you should be able to explain what artificial respiration, describe the different methods of artificial respiration and state the ways of turning a casualty into recovery position.

What are the methods for artificial respiration?

Artificial respiration, breathing induced by some manipulative technique when natural respiration has ceased or is faltering. Such techniques, if applied quickly and properly, can prevent some deaths from drowning, choking, strangulation, suffocation, carbon monoxide poisoning, and electric shock.

An artificial breathing technique is used when natural breathing has stopped or has faltered. When used properly, such strategies can help prevent some drowning, choking, strangulation, suffocation, carbon monoxide poisonings, and electric shocks.

Artificial respiration is necessary to resuscitate a patient in two main ways:

1. It is crucial for the upper respiratory tract (mouth, throat, pharynx) and the lungs to have an open channel.

2. During the beating of the heart, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the terminal air sacs of the lungs.

For these efforts to succeed, they must begin as soon as possible and continue until the victim begins to breathe again. Various methods were once used to artificially inflate the lungs, most of which were force­ based methods.


Artificial respiration: Different methods

Sylvester's method and Schaffer's method are two important artificial respiration methods.


Schaffer’s Method

This method requires that the victim lie on his belly with one arm reaching directly overhead while the other is bent at the elbow. The victim's face rests on the forearm and extended towards the ceiling. It is possible to breathe in this position with both mouth and nose open.

The doctor kneels on the patient's waist and places his hand on the patient's groin. To induce expiration, the doctor will bend forward and apply pressure, pushing the abdominal viscera to achieve the necessary pressure.

An exhalation that pushes forward is followed by an inspiration that bends backwards. Approximately three seconds pass during expiration and two seconds pass during inspiration, according to rough calculations. It has some advantages such as the fact that it is performed in the prone position, which makes draining the abdomen and lungs very easy.

It is an extremely simple method that is noticing and it can be repeated for a long period of time. Basically, the thorax or the back can be treated with this method if there are injuries. This method has the disadvantage that inspiration occurs passively and expiration occurs actively, both of which are not physiological. Injuries in the abdomen cannot be treated with this method.


Sylvester's method

A stomach­ down position in which your head is fully extended and a pillow placed under your shoulders. During this procedure, doctors kneel near the head of a patient to perform this procedure. In order to inspire the patient, the doctor bends over and pulls up the patient's arms.

A hand is placed deep on the chest of the patient as the doctor bends forward, causing them to exhale. During this method, inspiration should last for three seconds before expiring after two seconds. This method provides excellent ventilation so long as inspiration and expiration are active.

The lungs are not able to drain water using this method. A patient in the supine position is not appropriate for this method in cases of drowning. Due to this method's exhausting nature, assistance may be required. Also, if the chest or ribs are fractured, this cannot be applied.


Methods of Artificial Respiration if there is Pulse

In a situation when the casualty is not breathing but has pulse, respiration should be restored by either: 1. Mouth-to-mouth ventilation

2. Mouth-to-nose ventilations

3. Mask-to-mouth/nose ventilation

4. Mechanical aids/ devices.


1. Mouth-to-Mouth Ventilation

Mouth-to-mouth ventilation is easiest when the victim is lying on his back, but the first aider should start immediately whatever positions the victim happens to assume. Moreover, no time should be spent looking for hidden obstructions before starting.

The following steps should be followed:

a. The first aider should hold the victim's jaw forward with one hand with his (victim's) mouth open.

b. The thumb and forefinger of the other hand should be used to keep the victim's nostrils closed.

c. The first aider should open his mouth wide and take a deep breath.

d. The open mouth (lips) should be placed around the victim's mouth to seal it. e. The first aider should steadily blow into the victim's mouth (or lungs through the mouth) looking along the chest until the chest is seen rising.


Breathing for the victim (Mouth-to-mouth ventilation)

1. The first aider's mouth is removed well away and any excess air is exhaled while observing the chest fall. This completes one ventilation.

2. The whole process (3-6) should be repeated.

3. This is continued at a rate of about 10 per minute until natural breathing is restored. Young children require 20 breaths per minute.

4. The victim is placed in the recovery position after restoring natural respiration.

5. It should be emphasized that the victim's pulse should be checked every 10 ventilations.

6. A helper (bystander) if available should be sent to the phone for an ambulance.

If no one is available, the first aider should give 10 ventilations before leaving the victim to quickly go and send for an ambulance and then return quickly to continue ventilations.


2. Mouth-to-Nose Ventilation

Artificial Respiration and Resuscitation Method

Mouth-to-nose ventilation is used if the victim has sustained mouth injury, or has traces of poison taken, through his mouth; otherwise, the mouth-to-mouth method is more effective.

Nevertheless, a dogmatic preference for one or the other should be avoided, a manual method should be used in advanced first-aid for limited occasions such as when there is gross facial injury or poisonous material on the casualty's face, and it, therefore, becomes the only safe or possible method. The technique is essentially the same as mouth-to-mouth.

In this method, the first aider's mouth is placed over the victim's nostrils while his mouth is sealed by either the hand or the cheek. Ventilation is therefore through the nose.


3. Mask-to-Mouth/Nose Ventilation

This method involves the first aider wearing a face mask having a breathing device or mouthpiece which is placed over or inserted into the victim's mouth/nose. The first aider supplies ventilation through the device.

The Mask-to-mouth method is used in a situation where the first-aider may become a victim of the same condition that affected the casualty, such as operating in an atmosphere containing poisonous gas or lacking oxygen.


4. Mechanical Devices

Many automatic mechanical devices are available for positive pressure resuscitation. They may deliver air or oxygen to the victim. Mechanical devices such as the Ambu Resuscitator, Portion Bellows, or Brooke tube are occasionally used as an alternative by experts who are trained in specialist treatments. Such devices are, however, not readily available to bystanders or emergency first aiders at the scene of the incident so that their application will be possible if an ambulance carrying trained ambulance personnel brings any of them along.


Artificial Respiration, if there is no Pulse

When there is cardiac arrest (failure of the heartbeat), cardiopulmonary resuscitation is instituted. It should be noted that once a heart has stopped beating only minutes are available before death occurs, therefore, no time should be wasted before starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation which involves both closed-chest cardiac massage (compressions) and exhaled air resuscitation. It is therefore necessary to sweep into action of "ABC" of resuscitation.

For one person to carry out these two actions is a difficult process. Nevertheless, if no assistance is available, the first aider must carry out the two alone. If two persons are operating, one gives six to eight compressions, pauses to allow the second person to inflate the chest (using such method as mouth-to-mouth ventilation). The combined process is repeated several times until natural respiration is restored.

The following are the steps to be followed:

1. The first aider places the casualty on his back (supine position) on a hard surface, such as a floor or a wooden board.

2. The casualty's airway should be opened quickly by the first aider (or the assistant).

3. The first aider should kneel at the side of the casualty from where it will be possible for him to be able to lean over the casualty so that the shoulders with outstretched arms are vertically over the middle of the chest

4. The first aider should give two ventilations (inflations)

5. The first aider should locate the junction of the rib margins near the bottom of the breastbone.

6. He should place the heel of one of his hands two fingers above the junction.

7. The second hand should be placed over the first, interlocking the fingers.

 8. The first aider should press down vertically on the victim's breastbone so that the sternum depresses 4-5 centimeters (11/2 - 2 inches) for the average adult.

9. Pressure should be released thereafter. Compressions should be regular and smooth and not jabbing and jerking.

10. Compressions should be repeated at the rate of 80 per minute, i.e. fifteen heart compressions to two ventilations (inflations) or five compressions for one inflation per cycle.

11. With children, the depression of the sternum should be correspondingly less and one hand only may be used, or two or three fingers may be necessary for babies, in each case, the rate is 100 compressions per minute.

12. If an improvement in the casualty's condition is observed, the casualty's pulse should be checked again. 13. If the pulse returns naturally, chest compression should be stopped but the mouth-to-mouth ventilation should be continued until natural respiration is restored.

14. The casualty is then placed in the recovery position while breathing and pulse are checked frequently

15. Arrangements should be made to send for an ambulance.


Also read: What are the 12 Types of Sport Injuries?

Steps to turn a casualty into the recovery position

In order to turn a casualty from his back lying position into the recovery position;

1. The first aider should kneel beside the casualty

2. Any spectacles being worn by the casualty should be removed

3. The victim's legs should be straightened.

4. His near arm should be placed out at right angles to his body, elbow bent, and palm facing up.

5. His far arm should be brought across the chest, the hand and palm held outwards against the cheek. 6. The first alder's other hand should grasp the victim's far thigh, pulling his knee up and keeping his foot flat on the ground.

7. The first aider should keep the victim's hand pressed against the cheek; he pulls at the victim's thigh to roll him towards himself onto his (victim's) side.

8. The casualty's head should be tilted back to keep the airway open. The hand under the cheek should be adjusted, if necessary to maintain position.

9. The victim's upper leg should be adjusted, if necessary so that hip and knee are bent at right angles. There are minor modifications of this method which may be more applicable if the casualty is in an awkward position due to the circumstances of the accident or there are fractures to the upper or lower body.

In such cases, the recovery position can be maintained by laying a blanket down the front of the body. This method can also be used to transport a victim on a stretcher in the recovery position.


Conclusion on Artificial Respiration and Resuscitation Method

The importance of artificial respiration in a life-threatening emergency especially if breathing has stopped cannot be over emphases. You also learnt the different methods of artificial respiration and ways of turning casualty into the recovery position.

In this Post, you have learnt how to carry out artificial respiration in life-threatening emergencies. You now know the different methods of carrying out artificial respiration.

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