Closed Injuries – Definition, Examples, Causes, Symptoms, treatment and Prevention


Closed Injuries – Definition, Examples, Causes, Symptoms, treatment and Prevention

Injuries not visible with the eyes, only the signs and symptoms suggest the present of such injury. They are always very serious injuries that can result to fatal consequences. They must be considered as such and handled professionally.

In this article, you will be able to define correctly the key terms, list the example of closed injuries, explain their characteristic, state the sign and symptoms, Suggest some treatment close injures and  preventive measure.


Definition and Example of Closed Injuries

These are injuries that are not visible with the eyes, only the signs and symptoms present the evidence of injury Example of closed injuries include

a. Bruise or contusion

b. Dislocation and subluxation wounds

c. Fracture wounds

d. Strain and sprain wounds

e. Muscle pulls wounds

f. Cramps

g. Spasms


List and Explain Closed Injuries

(a) Bruise or contusion wound

The bruise or contused wound is a closed wound in which the soft body tissues beneath the skin are damaged excluding the skin. These wounds are marked by local pain and swellings with some black or blue coloration (ecchymosis). 

This could be as a result of the vessels that are damage that permit blood to ooze out into the muscles, causing pains and swollen of the area involve. They are always caused by a blow or bang mostly from a fall during play. It is commonly associated with internal bleeding when a large artery is cuter damage. 

The treatment is the application of cold compress or use ice block especially for the first 24 hours or 72 hours fora large areas that is big muscles.

(b) Dislocation wound

This is by a sudden twist or pull of a joint while in motion, or a blow to the joint also in motion, causing the bone to shift from its position.


The shift could be of two kinds

i. Partial dislocation or (Subluxation)

ii. Complete dislocation (Luxation)

The signs and symptoms are same as that of contused wounds, as if the injury could also might have led to the damage of capillary or vesseles supplying the joint. The treatment is same as in confused wounds. However, dislocation treatment may include the use of splints dressing, add up to the application of cold or ice compress.

(c) Fractured wounds

Definition: This is the breaking or damage to the continuation of bone or the breaking of the bone (periosteum). This includes even a crack on the bone.

Causes include:

(i) Direct Force breaks directly at the point of force

(ii) Indirect Force (bone break away from point of force

(iv) Force of a muscular contraction (violent contraction)

(v) Force of ligaments (wrenching or ‘twisting’ of joint.


Types of Fracture

(i) Green Stick Fracture (commonly with infants) as the bone is not yet completely formed, hence it mostly bent and break.

(ii) Simple (closed) fracture– This does not involve damage to the skin.

(iii) Compound (open) fracture – involve the bone piercing even the skin.

This involve damage to the skin, as the bone breaks. i.e as the bone breaks, it penetrates to the surface of the skin, this results to extensive blood loss and probably infection.

(iv) Complicated (closed and open) fracture; It is associated with injury of blood vessels and nerves.


Further Classification includes

- Transverse fracture

- Longitudinal fracture

- Oblique

- Spiral fracture

– All these happen when a simple fracture involve infection.

- Comminuted

- Depressed

- Compressed fractures, etc.


Signs and Symptoms

- Pains - Swellings and discoloration of affected part - Deformity of affected part or false limb, (joint).

- Tenderness

- Course bony grating could be heard

- Shock is likely also


Treatment of Fracture

- Ensure breathing and consciousness, before the fracture

- First aid or treatment of fracture injuries start at the scene of fracture

- Immobilization of the affected part first

- The use of bandages includes the following consideration:

(i) Use the uninjured limb as splints

(ii) Do not apply bandage over fractured injury

(iii) Bandaging should not be

- Too lose or

- Too tight Transport victim to hospital for further care and treatment

(d) Strain and Sprain wounds

These are injuries that takes place at the joints or structure around the joint commonly caused by impact from a blow, fall or twisting the joint from a sudden movement or unbalanced motion.

Strain– is when the tendon structures to the bones are damage or injured. Sprain injuries occur when the ligaments and cartilage structures are damage or injured. 

Just as in the case of confused or dislocation injuries the treatment of strain and sprain start with the immediate application of cold or ice compress or cold spray for hours as earlier stated in the treatment of confused wounds.

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