Difference between developed and developing countries


Difference between developed and developing countries

Every country needs that it should be counted as a Developed country; however, there is a long list of country which is in the category of Developing country.

Countries are divided into two major categories by the United Nations, which are developed countries and developing countries.

The classification of countries is based on the economic status such as GDP, GNP, per capital income, industrialization, the standard of living, etc. Developed Countries refers to the sovereign state, whose economy has highly progressed and possesses great technological infrastructure, as compared to other nations. 

The countries with low industrialization and low human development index are termed as developing countries.

In order to accomplish these goals, the most essential thing is the knowledge of differences between the Developed & Developing Countries.


What is development?

Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components.  

The purpose of development is a rise in the level and quality of life of the population, and the creation or expansion of local regional income and employment opportunities, without damaging the resources of the environment.  

Development is visible and useful, not necessarily immediately, and includes an aspect of quality change and the creation of conditions for a continuation of that change.

The international agenda began to focus on development beginning in the second half of the twentieth century.  

An understanding developed that economic growth did not necessarily lead to a rise in the level and quality of life for populations all over the world; there was a need to place an emphasis on specific policies that would channel resources and enable social and economic mobility for various layers of the population.

Through the years, professionals and various researchers developed a number of definitions and emphases for the term “development.” Amartya Sen, for example, developed the “capability approach,” which defined development as a tool enabling people to reach the highest level of their ability, through granting freedom of action, i.e., freedom of economic, social and family actions, etc.  

This approach became a basis for the measurement of development by the HDI (Human Development Index), which was developed by the UN Development Program (UNDP) in 1990. 

Martha Nussbaum developed the abilities approach in the field of gender and emphasized the empowerment of women as a development tool.

In contrast, professionals like Jeffrey Sachs and Paul Collier focused on mechanisms that prevent or oppress development in various countries, and cause them to linger in abject poverty for dozens of years. 

These are the various poverty traps, including civil wars, natural resources and poverty itself.  The identification of these traps enables relating to political – economic – social conditions in a country in an attempt to advance development.  

One of the emphases in the work of Jeffrey Sacks is the promotion of sustainable development, which believes in growth and development in order to raise the standard of living for citizens of the world today, through relating to the needs of environmental resources and the coming generations of the citizens of the world.


Read On: What are the 10 causes of underdevelopment?

What is developed country?

A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country is a sovereign state that has a high quality of life, developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

A nation is typically considered to still be "developing" if it does not meet the socioeconomic criteria listed above. Simply put, these are most often countries with a lower income, an underdeveloped industrial base, a lower standard of living, and a lack of access to modern technology. 

As a result, developing nations frequently experience a lack of jobs, food, clean drinking water, education, healthcare, and housing.

Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. 

A point of reference of US$20,000 in 2021 USD nominal GDP per capita for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a good point of departure, it is a similar level of development to the United States in 1960.

Developed countries have generally more advanced post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. 

They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialization or are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian, some of which might fall into the category of Least Developed Countries.

The following are the names of some developed countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United States.


Also Read: 15 Top Importance of Agriculture in Developing Countries

What is developing country?

A developing country is a sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a lower Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. 

However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. The countries which are going through the initial levels of industrial development along with low per capital income are known as Developing Countries. These countries come under the category of third world countries. They are also known as lower developed countries.

There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.

The term low and middle-income country (LMIC) is often used interchangeably but refers only to the economy of the countries.

The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on gross national income per capital: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. 

Least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and Small Island developing states are all sub-groupings of developing countries. Countries on the other end of the spectrum are usually referred to as high-income countries or developed countries.

There are controversies over this term's use, which some feel perpetuates an outdated concept of "us" and "them".

In 2015, the World Bank declared that the "developing/developed world categorization" had become less relevant and that they will phase out the use of that descriptor. Instead, their reports will present data aggregations for regions and income groups.

The term "Global South" is used by some as an alternative term to developing countries. 

Developing countries tend to have some characteristics in common often due to their histories or geographies. For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); a high number of road traffic accidents; and generally poor infrastructure.

Often, there is also widespread poverty, high crime rates, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, many informal settlements, and corruption at all government levels, and political instability. Global warming (climate change) is expected to impact developing countries more than wealthier countries, as most of them have a high "climate vulnerability".

Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by foreign governments and other agencies to support developing countries' economic, environmental, social, and political development. The Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations were set up to overcome many of these problems. 

The following are the names of some developing countries: Colombia, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey.

Also Read: Roles and Responsibilities of Policy Stakeholders


Important Differences Between Developed and Developing Countries

Difference between developed and developing countries

The following are the major differences between developed countries and developing countries

1. The countries which are independent and prosperous are known as Developed Countries. The countries which are facing the beginning of industrialization are called Developing Countries.

2. In Developed Countries the literacy rate is high, but in Developing Countries illiteracy rate is high.

3. In developed countries, the birth rate and death rate are low, whereas in developing countries both the rates are high.

4. Developed Countries have a high per capita income and GDP as compared to Developing Countries.

5. Developed Countries have good infrastructure and a better environment in terms of health and safety, which are absent in Developing Countries.

6. Developed Countries generate revenue from the industrial sector. Conversely, Developing Countries generate revenue from the service sector.

7. In developed countries, the standard of living of people is high, which is moderate in developing countries.

8. Resources are effectively and efficiently utilized in developed countries. On the other hand, proper utilization of resources is not done in developing countries.

9. The infant mortality, birth, and death rates of developing countries are also higher compared to that of developed countries.

10. The United States of America, Canada, Switzerland, Belgium, and France are examples of developed countries while 5.India, Malawi, Honduras, the Philippines, and Rwanda are examples of developing countries.

Conclusion on Difference between developed and developing countries

A developed country is a country that has a high level of industrialization and per capital income while a developing country is a country that is still in the early stages of industrial development and has a low per capital income.

The citizens of a developed country enjoy a free, healthy, and affluent existence while citizens of developing countries do not.

Developed countries are also known as industrialized, advanced, and first-world countries while developing countries are also known as underdeveloped, least developed, and third-world countries.

The United States of America, Canada, Switzerland, Belgium, and France are examples of developed countries while.

India, Malawi, Honduras, the Philippines, and Rwanda are examples of developing countries.

The infant mortality, birth, and death rates of developing countries are also higher compared to that of developed countries.

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