Some Common Emergency Care Cases


Some Common Emergency Care Cases

There are cases that might present emergency situation to the athlete when they did occur as minor as they might seems to be they could be very serious to the athlete on the field of play, depend on their extent. They include etc A sport man will need to be totally fit for him or her to participate in plays, especially competitive sports.

In this article, you will be able to List some common cases that could lead to emergency cases, describe their signs and symptoms, also state their possible causes, treatment and preventions

Common Emergency Care Cases

1. Hemorrhage

2.  Hypothermia

3.  Heat Exhaustion

1. Hemorrhage

This refers to a rapid and uncontrollable loss of outflow, which can be caused by a fear or damage to a major vessel carrying blood.

Types of Hemorrhage

There are three different types of hemorrhage or bleeding:

a. Arterial Bleeding

• Blood is bright red in colour

• It spurts at each contraction i.e. it jets out with heart beat

• Flow is pulsatile

b. Venous Bleeding

• Blood is dark red in colour

• It oozes i.e. does not spurt

• Steady flow c Capillary Bleeding

• It does not spurt

• Slow but even flow

External bleeding these are bleeding that allow


How to Diagnose External Bleeding

Generally, bleeding is of a minor nature and includes small cuts, grazes, etc.

However, bleeding may be severe and life threatening if a large vein or artery has been injured – e.g. the jugular vein in the neck.

Some wounds are associated with other injuries beneath the skin – e.g. an organ injured by a stabbing; broken bones which have pierced the skin.  

They following are how you can help:

1.   Apply direct pressure to the bleeding wound

2.   Raise the injured area

3.   If a foreign body is embedded in the wound

4.   Keep the patient at total rest

5.   Seek medical assistance

6.   If blood leaks through the pressure pad and bandage

i. Evidence of major external blood loss

ii. Symptoms and signs of shock

· Casualty complains of thirst

· Blurring vision faint and giddiness

· Face and leaves become pale

· Cold and clammy skin

· Fast but week pulse

· Restlessness

· Shallow breathing (Gasping for air)

· Unconsciousness may occur


Management of External Bleeding

The aim of managing bleeding includes the following:

1. Control of bleeding as soon as possible

2. Keep the wound clean and minimize blood loss and infection by dressing.

3. Arrange urgent removal to hospital.

a. Direct pressure

v Do not waste time for a dressing

v Place your hand directly over the wound and apply pressure continuously

v With available sterile dressing or clean cloth apply pressure until bleeding has stop 10-30 minutes.

b. Elevation

This can be used in combination with direct pressure.

v Elevate the affected part above the level of the heart to slow blood flow.

c. Pressure Points

v Arterial bleeding can be controlled by digital thumb or finger pressure at pressure points

v Pressure points are at places over a bone where arteries are close to the skin.

v Pressing the artery against the underlying bone can control the flow of blood to the injured part

d. Applying a Tourniquet

A tourniquet is a device use to control severe bleeding and life threatening. A standard tourniquet is a piece of web belting about thirty-six inches long with a buckle or snap device to hold it tightly in place. The width should be able to make it distribute pressure over tissues.

Improvised Tourniquet

In absence of an original tourniquet the first aider should be able to improvise.

The following materials can be improvised Belt, suspender, handkerchief towel, cloth or other suitable materials.

NB. Wire cord should never be use; otherwise they will cut into the flesh.


How to use Tourniquet

• Put pressure over pressure point by placing the tourniquet between the wound and the heart

• Apply pad over the artery to be compressed

• In using improvised tourniquet wrap the material tightly around the limp twice and tie a knot on the upper surface of the limb

• Place a short stick and tie a full knot.

Snow Blindness and Welders Flash

This happens when eyes are exposed to glare by reflection of the sun or snow for a long time. It affects the cornea.

This condition can also result from ultra-violet rays produced by welding.

Signs and Symptoms

Intense pains

• Feeling of sand or pepper in the eyes Red, watery and sensitive to light


1. Wash the eyes with cold water

2. Lightly dress both eyes with clean cloth or pad

3. See eye specialist


2.  Hypothermia

This condition develops when the body temperature falls below 35° c (95° f). it occurs when:

· Environmental temperature is very low

· Inadequate protection against cold environment

· Exhaustion in cold climate

· Wearing wet clothes over prolonged period

· High altitude

· Unheated or poorly heated homes

· Aggravated consumption of alcohol-diabetic individuals

· Age accompanied by physical condition

Signs and Symptoms

1. Feeling excessive cold

2. Skin become pale

3. Intense shivering

4. Muscle in coordination with shared speech

5. Restlessness, confusion and irritability

6. Slow pulse and respiration

7. Loss of consciousness

8. Difficulty in breathing and heat blat


1. Do not assume casualty is death because breathing and heart beat appeared absent

2. Cover the casualty with woolen cloth except the face

3. Place unconscious casualty in recovery position

4. Begin resuscitation process if breathing and heat stops

5. Shift to hospital.

NB. Do not place casualty’s hands and arms in direct contact with the body as this draws heat from the body. Do not give alcohol Do not rub or massage the limb or encourage exercise


3. Heat Exhaustion

It occurs after heavy and prolonged sweating which have not been replaced by salt and water on extremely hot days.

It can also occur in humid weather.

Symptoms and Signs

· The individual is exhausted and restless

· Head ache develops

· Tiredness, nausea and dizziness

· Pulse is rapid but weak

· Fast and shallow breathing

· Fainting

· There is also "muscle cramps in the limbs and abdomen

· Cold and clammy skin

· Temperature may be normal or sub-normal


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