What are the 12 Types of Sport Injuries?


What are the 12 Types of Sport Injuries?

Sports injury is damage or harm done to the body as a result of engaging in sports activities or related activities. It could lead to disability or even death if proper treatment is not given. It has rendered many sportsmen and women unfit because of the disability sustain from injuries.


What is Sports Injury?

Sports injury is an injury that occurs during sporting activities or exercises. This includes injuries affecting participation in sports and exercise and affecting athletes of all ages and all levels of performance. Most sports injuries are specific to the sports and the level of participation.

For example, soccer players have a high risk of ankle or knee injuries resulting from tackle, while runners will be lower limb injuries usually resulting from overuse. Sports injuries have rendered many athletes unfit to participate in future sports activities.

Sports injuries simply mean any damage done to any body part while engaging in sports activities. This damage could be minor or major. Major injuries such as dislocations or fractures, and could render an athlete temporary or permanently unfit for future sports competitions. Minor injuries like abrasions or minor cuts should be taken care of on the spot and the casualty goes back to the field of play.


12 Types of Sport Injuries

What are the 12 Types of Sport Injuries?

Different sports injuries produce different symptoms and complications. The most common types of sports injuries include:

1. Overuse Injuries: These are injuries that occur as a result of cumulative day-after-day stress placed on tendons, bones and ligaments during sporting activities. The forces that occur normally during physical activities are not enough to cause ligament sprains or muscles strains. However, when these forces are applied daily for some time, they can result in an injury. 

Common sites of overuse injuries are the leg, knees, and shoulder and elbow joints. Some common overuse Injuries body movement in exercises such as running and bicycling are highly repetitive as a result participants are susceptible to overuse injuries. 

In physical activities, the joint of the lower extremities that is the foot, the ankle, the knee and hip guide, knee and hip, in most cases tend to be injured more frequently than the upper extremity joints like the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. 

Three of the most common overuse injuries are plantar fasciitis, Shin, splints and Runner’s knee.

2. Traumatic Injuries: These types of injuries occur suddenly and violently typically by accident. Examples are broken bones, torn ligaments and muscles, contusions and lacerations. At times traumatic injuries occur quickly and are difficult to avoid. E.g spraining your ankle by landing on another person’s foot after jumping up for a rebound in basketball. 

If your traumatic injury causes a noticeable loss of function and immediate pain or pain that does not go away after 30 minutes you should see a doctor.

3. Fractures (Injuries to the Bone): A fracture is a break/bend or cracks in a bone. A fracture means a broken bone or any break in a bone. A considerable force is needed to break a bone unless it is diseased or very old. The bones that are still growing are supple and may split, bend or even crack.

Causes of Fractures may happen when direct (blow) or indirect force ( a twist, a wrench) is inflicted on a bone.

Direct force: The bone breaks at the spot of application of the force.

Indirect force: The bone breaks at the spot away from the spot of application of force e. g. collar-bone-fracture when the fall is on an outstretched hand.

Types of Fracture Closed fractures: The skin above the fracture is intact, although the bone ends may have damaged nearby tissues and blood vessels.

Open fractures (Compound Fractures): In this type of fracture, the skin above the fracture is not intact and there is bleeding.

In an open fracture, the bone is exposed to the outside air at the surface, dirt, dust and germs can easily get into the wound. There is a high risk of infection in this type of fracture.

4. Abrasion: This type of wound is a superficial wound in which the topmost layers of the skin are scraped off, thereby leaving a raw tender area. Abrasion generally involves the outer layer of skin with minor bleeding. These appear often when experiencing a sliding fall. The wounds often contain embedded germs, a foreign particle which may result in infection. This type of wound does not bleed much but they are usually very painful.

5. Incisions: Incised wounds are often caused by sharp instruments such as razor blades, knife etc. the blood vessels show a straight cut and bleeding may be profuse. It may sometimes, affect the tendons and nerves.

6. Lacerations: These are open wounds resulting from the tearing of the tissue, leaving a jagged-edged injury. They usually bleed freely but sometimes the bleeding is scanty. They are wounds you sustain when you come in contact with broken bottles or glass, protruding metal or materials. This type of wound is usually very painful.

7. Contusions (Bruises): Contused wounds are caused by blows, by blunt instrument or by punching. It is a close wound affecting both the skin and muscles. 

In this type of wound, there is no external bleeding rather the injured portion is swollen and the colour of the skin changes to red and becomes tender. It is caused by a blow from opponents or hit from an implement such as shot put, discus, hockey ball or stick, cricket ball or any other blunt object.

8. Puncture Wound: Puncture wounds are caused by stabs or sharp objects like javelin, spikes, knives, daggers or nails that pass straight through the skin to any depth. These wounds typically have a smaller opening, but may go deep into the tissue.

9. Stiffness of Muscles: It is the tightening of muscles experienced when participating in sporting activities especially when the athlete did not warm up properly or has not engaged in physical activities for a long period of time. 

In most cases the site of the stiffness becomes fatigued. Stiffness is a result of the accumulation or pilling up of metabolic waste materials in the body such as lactic acid and the inability of the circulation to remove them as fast as they are produced.

10. Strains: They are what most people often refer to as “muscle pull”. They are pulled muscles which partially or completely get torn causing severe pain and limitation in movement. Strains do not affect the bony structure of the body but rather involve the muscles which allow for body movements. 

They are caused by lack of coordination between the opposing muscles overstretching or severe contraction, fatigue, lack of adequate warm-up, lack of skills, or improper condition. In most cases, they usually occur as a result of sudden violent movement most often when exercising unused muscles.

11. Sprains: This is an injury of the ligament, joint, capsules, muscles, tendons or nerve. It is the partial or complete tearing of one or more ligaments that surround the joint. Sprains may be associated with fractures, swelling, and displacement of tendons or injury to nerves. Sprains are caused by abnormal movements of a joint mainly by twisting. Sprains occur when the force to which the joint has been exposed is not sufficient to produce a dislocation but is severe enough to tear the ligaments holding the bone ends together.

12. Dislocations: This occurs when a bone or more have been partially or completely separated at a joint from the normal or original position. Pain, tenderness, swelling and lack of movement of the limb will be felt when the joint is dislocated. In a dislocation, the ends of two or more bones meeting to form a joint are forced apart, out of their normal relationship. 

Dislocation can be noticed by a change in the shape of the joint or a change in the length of the limb. Dislocations are caused by a forced movement or a counter joint motion.

Sports injuries prevention

What are the 12 Types of Sport Injuries?

The best way to prevent a sports injury is to warm up properly and stretch. Cold muscles are prone to overstretching and tears. Warm muscles are more flexible. They can absorb quick movements, bends, and jerks, making injury less likely.

Also take these steps to avoid sports injuries:

1. Use the proper technique: Learn the proper way to move during your sport or activity. Different types of exercise require different stances and postures. For example, in some sports, bending your knees at the right time can help avoid an injury to your spine or hips.

2. Have the proper equipment: Wear the right shoes. Make sure you have the proper athletic protection. Ill-fitting shoes or gear can increase your risk for injury.

3. Do not overdo it: If you do get hurt, make sure you’re healed before you start the activity again. Don’t try to “work through” the pain.When you return after letting your body recover, you may need to ease yourself back into the exercise or sport rather than jumping back in at the same intensity.

4. Cool down: Remember to cool down after your activity. Usually, this involves doing the same stretching and exercises involved in a warmup.

5. Resume activity slowly: Don’t be tempted to nurse your injury for too long. Excessive rest may delay healing. After the initial 48-hour period of RICE, you can start using heat to help relax tight muscles. Take things slowly, and ease back in to exercise or your sport of choice.



Sports injuries treatment

The RICE method is a common treatment regimen for sports injuries. It stands for:

1.         Rest

2.         Ice

3.         Compression

4.         Elevation

This treatment method is helpful for mild sports injuries. For best results, follow the RICE method within the first 24 to 36 hours after the injury. It can help reduce swelling and prevent additional pain and bruising in the early days after a sports injury. 

Both over-the-counter and prescription medications are available to treat sports injuries. Most of them provide relief from pain and swelling.

If your sports injury looks or feels severe, make an appointment to see your doctor. Seek emergency care if the injured joint shows signs of:

1.  severe swelling and pain

2.  visible lumps, bumps, or other deformities

3.  popping or crunching sounds when you use the joint

4.  weakness or inability to put weight on the joint

5.  instability

Also seek emergency attention if you experience any of the following after an injury:

1) difficulty breathing

2) dizziness

3) fever

Serious sports injuries can require surgery and physical therapy. If the injury doesn’t heal within two weeks, contact your doctor for an appointment.

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