What makes a country developed?


What makes a country developed?

Every country needs that it should be counted as a Developed country; however, there is a long list of country which is in the category of Developing country. Countries are divided into two major categories by the United Nations, which are developed countries and developing countries. 

The classification of countries is based on the economic status such as GDP, GNP, per capita income, industrialization, the standard of living, etc. 

Developed Countries refers to the sovereign state, whose economy has highly progressed and possesses great technological infrastructure, as compared to other nations. The countries with low industrialization and low human development index are termed as developing countries.

In order to accomplish these goals, the most essential thing is the knowledge of differences between the Developed & Developing Countries.


What is development?

Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components. 

The purpose of development is a rise in the level and quality of life of the population, and the creation or expansion of local regional income and employment opportunities, without damaging the resources of the environment. 

Development is visible and useful, not necessarily immediately, and includes an aspect of quality change and the creation of conditions for a continuation of that change.

The international agenda began to focus on development beginning in the second half of the twentieth century.  An understanding developed that economic growth did not necessarily lead to a rise in the level and quality of life for populations all over the world; there was a need to place an emphasis on specific policies that would channel resources and enable social and economic mobility for various layers of the population.

Through the years, professionals and various researchers developed a number of definitions and emphases for the term “development.” Amartya Sen, for example, developed the “capability approach,” which defined development as a tool enabling people to reach the highest level of their ability, through granting freedom of action, i.e., freedom of economic, social and family actions, etc. 

This approach became a basis for the measurement of development by the HDI (Human Development Index), which was developed by the UN Development Program (UNDP) in 1990.  Martha Nussbaum developed the abilities approach in the field of gender and emphasized the empowerment of women as a development tool.

In contrast, professionals like Jeffrey Sachs and Paul Collier focused on mechanisms that prevent or oppress development in various countries, and cause them to linger in abject poverty for dozens of years. 

These are the various poverty traps, including civil wars, natural resources and poverty itself. 

The identification of these traps enables relating to political, economic and  social conditions in a country in an attempt to advance development. 

One of the emphases in the work of Jeffrey Sacks is the promotion of sustainable development, which believes in growth and development in order to raise the standard of living for citizens of the world today, through relating to the needs of environmental resources and the coming generations of the citizens of the world.


Also Read: Difference between developed and developing countries

What is developed country?

developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country is a sovereign state that has a high quality of life, developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

A nation is typically considered to still be "developing" if it does not meet the socioeconomic criteria listed above. Simply put, these are most often countries with a lower income, an underdeveloped industrial base, a lower standard of living, and a lack of access to modern technology.

As a result, developing nations frequently experience a lack of jobs, food, clean drinking water, education, healthcare, and housing.

A developed country—also called an industrialized country—has a mature and sophisticated economy, usually measured by gross domestic product (GDP) and/or average income per resident.

Developed countries have advanced technological infrastructure and have diverse industrial and service sectors. Their citizens typically enjoy access to quality health care and higher education.

Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living. Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate.

A point of reference of US$20,000 in 2021 USD nominal GDP per capita for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a good point of departure, it is a similar level of development to the United States in 1960.

Developed countries have generally more advanced post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialization or are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian, some of which might fall into the category of Least Developed Countries.

The following are the names of some developed countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States.

What makes a country developed?

What makes a country developed?

The commonalities between developed countries include an improved quality of life and greater access to basic necessities. Conversely, underdeveloped nations around the world also share common characteristics. Citizens suffer from preventable diseases, extreme poverty and lack of access to healthcare and clean water.

Understanding the characteristics of underdeveloped countries can allow for a more strategic aid process to contribute to their development.

It is a know fact that a developed country is “one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment.” While this may be an oversimplified statement, it highlights key issues that must be addressed in order for a country to develop.


Read on: What are the 10 causes of underdevelopment?

Major characteristics of underdeveloped countries.

1. Low life expectancy: While the life expectancy of developed countries is typically in the 70s and 80s, underdeveloped countries often have life expectancy in the low 50s. This is common in African nations and is due to high birthrates and low contraception use, poor access to health care and potable water, lack of education and disease. All of this can easily be prevented. Many measures can raise life expectancy while decreasing overpopulation and deaths resulting from preventable diseases. This includes using technology to help medical clinics in rural areas, increasing the number of wells, utilizing solar sanitation systems, revamping national education standards and having a sharper focus on vaccines.

2. Poor education and literacy: Similarly to life expectancy, literacy rates and educational systems are telltale signs of a developed country. While countries like Norway consistently maintain a 100 percent literacy rate, underdeveloped countries, such as Niger, maintain an estimated 19 percent. While primary school is mandatory for most of the world’s children, many drop out in underdeveloped countries. The lack of secondary and vocational education for children prevents them from entering the workforce later in life. This can be combated by revamping curriculum and teacher training and by enforcing internationally recognized standards.

3. Poverty rates: The economy factors greatly into what makes a country developed. Lack of income prevents people from access to basic human rights such as clean water, food and preventable measures against disease. While only 15 percent of Americans live in poverty, over 60 percent in the Congo and neighboring countries do. With additional aid, underdeveloped countries can increase credit access and improve agricultural and infrastructural systems, which would produce food and create jobs simultaneously.

4. High fertility rates: Overpopulation is another characteristic of underdeveloped countries. Lack of education and birth control have contributed greatly to high fertility rates. In countries like Chad, for instance, only five percent utilize contraception. It has contributed to high birth rates, a population in which the majority are adolescents and have low life expectancies. Better education and access to birth control can balance the booming population in underdeveloped countries. It is clear that the steps to helping underdeveloped countries are simple. Healthcare, education and credit access contribute to what makes a country developed. By addressing the aforementioned issues, underdeveloped countries can take steps to develop further and contribute to eliminating global poverty.

5. Industrialization: Developed countries have high rates of employment and manufacturing. As opposed to emerging economies that depend on agriculture, an improved economy depends on the industry. The larger the industrial setups, the better are the economic development. Developed economies have modern technology. Not only this, all people within the country have access to excellent facilities and technical advancements. Such countries have high manufacturing rates and more export than imports. The higher export rate will bring in more profits and ensure that the economy is consistently growing. And this consistency will lead to increased industrialization. Hence, levels of manufacturing are a great determiner of a country’s development.

6.  Political Stability: Political stability is a relatively new measure of a country’s development. The World Bank initiated this factor. It acts as a useful parameter in determining the development of a nation. Developed countries are politically stable have low to no corruption, and people have high respect for the country’s laws. Good governance is a way of making sure that there is a right amount of transparency in public affairs, along with high employment rates. It makes sure that the level of corruption is low and ensures that the employee is solely based on proper qualification, eligibility, and ranking. Ensuring this will automatically provide a stable and robust government body. The global governance index is measured between -2.5 and +2.15. A positive 2.5 is the highest rating any country may have. Higher the number more developed is the state.

7) Gross Domestic Product: This is perhaps the most common measure of an economy’s development. As mentioned before, GDP is an essential determiner of a country’s rate of development. Unlike HDI, this factor is economy-oriented. Gross domestic product refers to the total value of goods and services produced within a country. Developed countries have a high GDP. However, the gross domestic product doesn’t always signify a developed economy. There are countries like Qatar that have high GDP but are still considered to be growing. It is mainly because the major part of the population continues to face economic setbacks.

8. Knowledge-Economy: Knowledge economy refers to developing valuable knowledge such as procedures, designs, software, and formulations. It is the increase in creative input by the people. There are scientific and technical breakthroughs marking a good economy. People within a developed economy have a more significant fraction of working in the service sector. This implies more lawyers, doctors, engineers, architects, and so on.

9. Freedom:  A developed country provides various forms of freedom to its citizens. These forms of freedom are considered as the fundamental rights of the citizens. Hence, a developed nation respects and abides by these rights. These fundamental rights include the right to worship, settle anywhere within the country, marry, own land or property, and gain access to information regarding the governmental policies, etc.

In less developed or developing nations, certain people are deprived of such fundamental rights. There are many restrictions on the people, and they aren’t allowed to do certain things out of their own free will. Depriving your people of such freedom can significantly affect the status of a country.

10. Human Development Index: It is a measure introduced by the UN. This particular parameter is used to determine the extent of human development in a nation. HDI is a measure put between 0 to 1- the higher it is- the more developed the economy is. GDI and GNP usually give only the income and productivity of a nation. HDI measures how this income has turned into social development standards like health or education. Other factors that are also considered, such as availability of healthcare facilities, child mortality rate, access to quality education, the average number of years spent in school. HDI can also change according to the ability of the children to implement the knowledge gained in school in real-life situations. All these factors and many more are useful in determining the HDI of a country. HDI is incorporating more in comparison to GDP or GNP. It is citizen-specific and more reliable. Any developed country should have high education, literacy, and health levels.  When talking of HDI, we consider the following: Good health care, the low child mortality rate, quality and Free education and literacy Rate.



Features of Developed Countries

1. Has a high income per capital: Developed countries have high per capital incomes each year. By having a high income per capita, the country’s economic value will be boosted. Therefore, the amount of poverty can be overcome.

2. Security Is Guaranteed: The level of security of developed countries is more secure compared to developing countries. This is also a side effect of sophisticated technology in developed countries. With sophisticated technology, security facilities and weapons technology also develop for the better.

3. Guaranteed Health: In addition to ensuring security, health in a developed country is also guaranteed. This is characterized by a variety of adequate health facilities, such as hospitals and medical staff who are trained and reliable. Therefore, mortality rates in developed countries can be suppressed and the life expectancy of the population can be high. In addition, with adequate health facilities, population development in developed countries can also be controlled.

4. Low unemployment rate: In developed countries, the unemployment rate is relatively small because every citizen can get a job.

5. Mastering Science and Technology: The inhabitants of developed countries tend to have mastered science and technology from which new useful products such as the industrial pendant lights were introduced to the market. Therefore, in their daily lives, they have also used sophisticated technology and modern tools to facilitate their daily lives.

6. The level of exports is higher than imports: The level of exports in developed countries is higher than the level of imports because of the superior human resources and technology possessed.

Examples of developed countries include the United States, Germany, and Japan.

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