Meaning and Types of Diplomacy


Meaning and Types of Diplomacy

We intend to examine in this section, diplomacy as the main political tool used by nations to pursue their national interests. We will try to understand the meaning of diplomacy, and the different types of diplomacy or a combination of diplomacy that the country can use to pursue its goals in the country system. 

In addition, we will also explore economic diplomacy as an important tool to strengthen national interests.

In this article, you will be able to:

• Explain the meaning and use of diplomacy

• Discuss the different types of diplomacy

• Explain the meaning of personal politics

• Explain the meaning of economic diplomacy


Meaning of Diplomacy

Diplomacy is the primary political tool used by nation-states to pursue foreign policy goals. It is a process of coercion, approval (system), coordination and agreement through communication.

It refers to the process of negotiations between states to reduce the area of ​​conflict, resolve disputes or agree on issues that cannot be negotiated further.

Foreign negotiations may be initiated not really for a treaty but for propaganda purposes. If the relationship is good between different countries, the role of ambassadors, ambassadors or foreign ministers is to maintain some kind of success or, in case of crisis, they organize events more difficult diplomatic. They can invite others such as states or international organizations, for example Nigeria, France and the United Nations in Congo, Middle East, Angola; AU in Chad or Sudan; Western Sahara, Nigeria to Sudan, etc.

These are ad hoc bodies and can be deleted after the problem. A tense situation may push one or more disputing parties to a neutral position, e.g. Vienna, Geneva, Helsinki and negotiations on liberation.

The most important thing was to move the United Nations General Assembly from New York to Geneva to allow Yasir Arafat of the State of Palestine to address the United Nations after the United States refused to grant Arafat a visa to the United States for security reasons.

There is also the issue of seating arrangements (technically), whether the meeting should be open or closed. Sometimes, actors choose intimate meetings to hide from the pressure of journalists and other powerful lobbyists.

In the negotiation process, the actors put their demands on the validity of the statements and the diplomatic skills of the representatives. Failure can cause problems depending on the nature of the request. The use of threats and rewards is to force states to toe a given line.

They range from diplomatic sanctions, economic sanctions, such as those imposed by the US; The European Union, from the Babangida regime to the Abacha regime in Nigeria, because of the abuse of democracy; and the Commonwealth's declaration that Nigeria was expelled from the institution for violating human rights. Certain methods such as being honest and telling the truth are very important to reach an agreement.

However, a lot of deception, duplicity and lies color diplomatic negotiations. Diplomacy is different from foreign policy because foreign policy is an integral part.

In principle, this difference may be important, but in practice both are supported.


Types of Diplomacy

Meaning and Types of Diplomacy

Below are key of Types of diplomacy. These include: 

1.      Permanent Tradition Diplomacy

2.      Personal diplomacy

3.      Permanent Conference Diplomacy

4.      Parliamentary Conference Diplomacy

5.      Multilateral Diplomacy

6.      Ad hoc conference Diplomacy

7.      Evolutionary Diplomacy and Economic diplomacy, etc.


1. Permanent Tradition Diplomacy

This is where traditional methods are often used in international negotiations. That is, for all political negotiations, must include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, through its Minister, and its immediate representatives, Chargé de Affaires, Protocol, Information Attachés, etc. The head of government usually gives the minister of foreign affairs the right to speak, on behalf of the state, whenever the head of government wants to make such a speech, the minister and perhaps the legislature will and there is a contribution.

In the case of a change of government, this process is not changed, although officials may change, such as ministers and ambassadors sometimes. No matter how hard or revolutionary, the government will not always be able to change the system.

 2.  Permanent Conference Diplomacy

Here, diplomatic negotiations are conducted through various forums. Especially in matters beyond the power of a single state such as ECOWAS, AU, UN, Non-Allied Movement (NAM), European Union (EU), Commonwealth, Arab League, WTO, etc. Organize annual meetings and special meetings on general or specific issues related to global conflict and peace. Therefore, before ECOWAS launched ECOMOG, it met, discussed and supported the military management operation in Liberia to reduce conflict and promote reconciliation in the war-torn region.

The annual AU summit often highlights problems that can be solved by Africans. With one voice, they call on the international community to solve the economic crisis. Within the OAU/AU, there is the Committee on the Liberation of Southern Africa and Apartheid. There is also an arbitration and conciliation committee. The problem with the AU, however, is the inability of its leaders to give similar responsibilities. This is why he failed in his peacekeeping mission in Chad, while Nigeria was left to take over.

 3. Parliamentary Conference Diplomacy

Every state constitution recognizes the importance of establishing a foreign affairs committee. He often had debates about foreign affairs and sent them to the whole house for a general debate. As usual, the parliament must approve the agreement signed by the head of government. The failure of the Supreme Military Council of Nigeria to approve the annexation of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon by Gowon is the cause of the current crisis between Nigeria and Cameroon on the Bakassi Peninsula. .

 4. Personal Diplomacy

It is a form of politics in which the head of state or the Minister of Foreign Affairs abandons the permanent traditional structures in favor of personal agendas. It includes diplomatic vehicles and allies, traveling from city to city for painting statues and other business.

Although the trips are generally made with the employees of the ministry concerned, the commitment of the minister is personal.

General Yakubu Gowon and Chief Olusegun Obasanjo are the best examples in Nigeria. In one of the car diplomacy, Gown promised to pay the salaries of Grenada workers for six months. The danger in this type of diplomacy is that the environment it visits affects the weak leader.

But for strong leaders, it is difficult. As a result, the Nigerian government hoped that Margaret Thatcher's visit to Nigeria could influence her views on apartheid in South Africa. However, Nigeria has misrepresented Britain's belief in adopting a traditional legal system.

5. Ad Hoc Conference Diplomacy

It is a temporary political system established by the state or organization for a specific purpose, it ends once the purpose is achieved, for example. OAU Apartheid Committee, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo is the chairman of the Eminent Persons Group in South Africa etc. Once apartheid was abolished in 1994, the old committee was disbanded.

6. Economic Diplomacy

It refers to the way in which the government influences and controls certain productive sectors of the government that combine the interests of private companies and the economy of other countries for its national interest, which is wealth and wealth and politics.

This concept dates back to 1580 when technical assistance policies were popular with the aim of promoting export markets. There is a provocative economic diplomacy where the country, pursuing international relations, with its strong economy, is not only ready to change the program and situation, but also can start to develop in every time when his country's economic interest is in danger. This may include the extension or denial of financial benefits, petroleum products, foodstuffs, the granting or denial or withdrawal of commercial agreements, the establishment or dismissal of foreign investments, etc.

For example, Nigeria introduced BP assets to the Shell PDC on August 2, 1979 at the independence of Zimbabwe. The 1973 oil embargo by Arab states was to put pressure on the Western world. The Monroe Doctrine, the Marshal's Economic Plan and the Brezhnev Doctrine, etc. are other such examples. There is also defensive economic diplomacy, where an exploited and ruthless nation reacts violently against its enemies and tries to drive them out rather than fall into slavery.

A community may want to be a master.

For example, Japan, China, Cuba, Nicaragua, etc. fought such a struggle to maintain their control. It is also necessary to reorganize the current international economic system. Nigeria's economic recovery began in 1988 as a result of the economic crisis and the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP). Those languages ​​are:

• Interest in foreign investment

• Energy efficiency improvement

• Cost management.


Conclusion on Meaning and Types of Diplomacy 

Diplomacy is a very important part of the infrastructure and practice of foreign relations by countries. It involves the use of tact, a part of deception, lies, and some pressure or force, both potential and real: and surprisingly it is part of trust and telling the truth.

What a combination! Now you can understand the amorphous nature of diplomacy. It is usually in the hands of ministers and local leaders which should be followed or which combination of methods should be used at any given time.

We have discussed the meaning of diplomacy and the types of diplomacy. Even in our relationship, a degree of diplomacy is often required to achieve our goals. So you can imagine the importance of this for different countries.

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