Scope of International Relations


Scope of International Relations

International relations generally refer to the relations of States. There is no state in the world today that is completely self-sufficient or isolated from others. Each land is directly or indirectly dependent on the other.

Therefore, in the international crisis, trust between states has been established. Due to the collapse of this state, a separate topic called "International Cooperation" has been created with the aim of discussing how to achieve peace and prosperity in the world through cooperation, avoiding conflict, war etc.

A broad system of international relations and its basis is interdependence. The speed of international relations has increased with the development of information technology.

International relations as a special academic discipline appeared at the beginning of the 20th century, mainly after the First World War. The Soviet Union's 1917 peace treaty and President Woodrow Wilson's 14-point policy of 1918 are known as important documents in international relations.


Meaning and Definitions

International relations as a different program dealing with international events and global issues between states considered in the context of the international system. Its main topics are the role of the state, international organizations, non-governmental organizations and international organizations. It is both an academic field and a government policy area, and it can be critical or normative, as this field of knowledge is used in foreign policy analysis and planning.

There is no correct definition of international relations. Experts have explained it from their own point of view. There are also problems with the definition of international relations.

Often, international relations is considered as a group of world politics and international politics. Palmer and Perkins are the most famous names in international relations because of their importance in the definition and subject in international relations.

According to them, international relations are influenced by the forces, pressures and processes that control the nature of human life, work and thoughts and social relations in the world community. In other words, the discussion of international relations includes both political and non-political issues.

According to Quincy Wright, international relations include "the relationship between many institutions with uncertain powers" and "not only countries that international relations seek to unite. 

A variety of different types - nations, states, governments, people, regions, alliances, alliances, international organizations, even industrial organizations, cultural organizations, religious organizations - must be treated in the study of social relations. International, if the treatment is true. "

Finally, the accepted definition of international relations is that international relations is a multifaceted activity that affects the relationship between different countries of the world, non-governmental organizations, international organizations , war and peace, ceasefire, joint training, terrorism and everything international system.

International relations have a great impact on world politics, and the research and practice of the subject from modern politics and contemporary politics, the relationship between many states and political ideas about problems economy and world, social change, cooperation and debate.


The Scope of International Relations

As a subject of study, international relations is a new and developing subject. His field of work continued to expand and develop. The field of study of international relations includes the following areas or topics:

1. State Procedures

The study of international relations instigates with the state system. We can see the great influence of the state system on the international situation for three centuries. Individuals organize themselves into sovereign nations that strive to achieve their interests.

The conflicting interests of these sovereign nations lead to conflict, and international politics is a natural product of the conflict between sovereign nations. Not all states adopt the states of all other countries. Some are important because of their neighborhood, some because of their military power or wealth, while others because of race or culture. In short, the relationship between the states is the result of the owners of the country and international relations studies these relationships.

2. Sex and Co-operation

International relations study the relationship between two or more states, which are often complex and have different geopolitical, historical, social, religious, ideological, strategic and material influences. Guidance.

Generally, these relationships have taken the form of cooperation and conflict. Relationships and conflicts are two sides of the same coin. Inspired by the fact that they are conflicts in international history rather than two societies living together in different periods of history International relations are the main study of both conflicts and civil relations.


3. General and Diplomatic History

In the early years of his training, his birth was history. International relations have long been compared to international or international history. In this tradition, some important events have been raised to be considered from a historical perspective.

Over time, the historical process was changed by many new and better methods, but history and events did not stop their importance for international relations. For example, to study recent Indo-Pakistan relations, one has to go back in time to know their historical context. The study of history in general and diplomacy in particular cannot be separated from international relations.


4. Strength

In the period following World War II, power became a central theme in the study of international relations. According to Morgenthau, international politics is nothing but the politics of power and can only be truly understood if it is seen as a concept of interest defined in terms of power of the nation. Power has practical and strategic importance. It is the main factor that determines the policies of the capital of the world and of international relations in general.

In international relations, one examines the nature, substance and size of national power, the balance of power, the balance of power and the extent of national power. The main areas of power studied are: international law, international ethics, social theory, balance of power, collective security and international organizations.


5. International and Union Law

International law acts as a deterrent to national power and state action. Therefore, it is accepted as a very important part of the study of international relations. International law consists of rules governing and determining the conduct of nations in times of peace as well as in times of war. Therefore, a good knowledge of international law is necessary to understand international relations.

The United Nations, the largest of all international organizations, the regional organization of NATO, OAS, EEC and SAARC and other international or regional organizations have taken an important role in today's world. These international organizations provide forums for cooperation and dispute resolution and are governed by their own governments. These groups are designed for economic, military, technological or cultural cooperation between member countries. Since all these organizations and institutions have an impact on local relations, they become international to that extent.


6. War and Peace

 Almost all studies of international relations focus on the problems of war and peace. There is no smaller problem than that of human life. Conflicts of interest and the height of conflict between nations often lead to war between two or more nations or groups of them. War is as old as the state itself and is followed by some form of peace and settlement. War and peace work are now systematically studied in this area. The study of international relations is very important for all people and requires an interdisciplinary approach.


7. National Interests

National interest is the goal of sovereign nations. His goal with the help of power and through the tools of foreign policy. In the same way, national interest is the main link of international relations. Hartmann correctly stated that international relations as a field of study focuses on the process by which states balance their national interests with those of other states. Therefore, concern for national interests becomes central to the conduct of national policies. National interest rate has been a useful factor in analyzing the history and practice of a country's foreign policy.

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8. Concept

The 20th century was also the beginning of various ideas such as Communism, Socialism, Capitalism, Nazism, Fascism, Totalitarianism, Liberalism, etc. With conflicting political, economic and social systems, ideological issues have come to the fore at the international level.

Since the First World War, many international issues have had different views that make relations between countries more difficult. Undoubtedly, for some years now, we have been talking about the end of the concept and breaking the idol of international relations, but the elements of the concept cannot be ignored in the study of international relations. To understand international relations at this time, we must take into account the process of objectification and de-idealization.


9. Foreign Policy

Sovereign countries conduct their foreign relations and deal with each other through foreign policy and thus foreign policy is international policy as a document that has national interests and shows areas of agreement and conflict. It explains the idea that the state will put its influence at the end of its total performance. Although foreign policy is not the be-all and end-all of international relations, it is nevertheless an important part of its study.


10. Affiliates and Associations

Undoubtedly, many major alliances, including NATO, Warsaw Pact, SEATO, CENTO, etc. which flourished in the 1950s and early 1960s has now lost relevance, but social politics has become an important part of the study of post-war international relations.

The study of international relations focuses on the factors that contribute to the success of such military alliances, the degree of their unity, and their impact on the balance of power between the states involved. There are also other groups that are not military alliances such as communist countries, free world, Islamic world, non-aligned countries, Arab countries, African countries, etc. They work together on many common issues inside and outside the UN.

The factors that unite them, the degree of their unity and their conflict with other groups, are the subject of international relations.

11. Economic Matters

Both economic and security interests play a role in inter-state political transactions and gain importance in civil society. No one can ignore in international relations economic factors such as the food crisis, economic planning and development, exchange rates, tariffs, foreign exchange management, commodity contracts, international trade, balance of payments, foreign aid, differences between developed and underdeveloped countries, the demand for a new international economic system, international investment, international institutions, international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and many other United Nations agencies and financial institutions and local abundance.

The Marxist approach to international relations emphasizes only economic factors, and many non-communist theories also recognize the role of economic factors in international life. Economic issues come under international relations as it affects relations between states.

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