Theories of International Studies (Explained)


Theories of International Studies (Explained)

From this, we will begin our analysis of the different concepts of international studies and diplomacy. We will begin by examining the theoretical framework as it relates to international studies, identifying in particular the various scholars and how this theory helps us to explain what is happening in international relations in regional and state areas. 

In this article, you will be able to:

• Explain systems theory

• Make connections to international studies

• Discuss Talcott Parsons' Social Balance Theory

• List the names of the system administrators


Theories of International Studies

International relations theory is a theoretical framework that explains how the international system works. Unlike theory, international relations theory is (at least in principle) supported by empirical evidence.

The four main theories of international relations are the Systems Theory, Modernization Theory, Theory of International Interdependence (Globalization) theory and Talcott Parson's Theory.  


National Interest

Many theories of international relations are based on the idea that states always act based on the interests of their country or the interests of the state. State security often includes self-defense, military security, economic prosperity, and influence over other states. Sometimes two or more states have the same national interest.

For example, two states may want to promote peace and economic trade. And states with strongly opposing national interests may try to resolve their differences through negotiation or even war.


The Systems Theory

Systems theory is perhaps the most widely used in international relations. Borrowed from biology and engineering science, it emphasizes the mechanism by which devices work to achieve goals.

The strategic process helps determine the ability of the political system to maintain equilibrium in the face of pressure and to adapt to changes that are imposed internally and externally. All existing political units are assumed to interact in a temporal and observable manner.

A system is an independent part of a complex, interacting and self-replicating entity. Each setting depends on it. The behavior of each state depends on the behavior of other states; or in the spirit of the game, each player's move or "strategy" - the set of moves he calculates he must make to win - depends on the moves of all the other players.

A method is thus a common way to consider part of the truth for research purposes; this is why we talk about the "circulatory system" of the person, whose parts or "subsystems" - veins, arteries, organs and cells - will all work properly if the weight system will give good performance or, possibly, not work at all.

In other words, when a person eats, digestion takes place, along with elimination of waste. This helps in forcing the system for a healthy life leading to birth. Any dysfunction, according to the blood system, will damage other systems; therefore, medicine can be taken to create a good job for the future.

In the international political game, each state and state system is responsible for its security and freedom. Anyone who sees other states as enemies can undermine basic interests.

In other words, any action by the state destroys or tries to maintain balance. As a result, states often lack trust and view each other with fear and distrust. The result is that all people focus too much on their strength or power.

In other words, to prevent an invasion, the state believes that it must be as strong as a potential aggressor, because the lack of power can cause the other state to attack. "The direction of the army", or fear or balance, however, will make victory in war impossible.

Therefore, balance in everything will prevent invasion (Morgenthau's power theory). "Balance is balance of power and balance of power is naturalized power." Therefore, the balance of power is to protect the system itself.

Any attempt by any country to expand its power (disrupts the system) and gain power, which will allow it to focus on other states; will resist. When the equilibrium is disturbed, the tendency will be for a reactive reaction to restore it to a state of equilibrium.

In other words, states are actors whose role it is to perform the functions of the system "given" to them in maintaining this balance. If they fail in their duty by disregarding the work order, this force must be changed, and their own safety is compromised.

A balance of power is an empirical description of how states act (or more accurately, how many of them, especially the great powers, do most of the time) and a prescription for states to show how they should not.

According to the analysis above, a country is a subsystem regardless of its characteristics; it destroys or preserves the balance.

The two world wars and their involvement in the United States and the former Soviet Union and other states either destroyed the system in some way or maintained it.

The Middle East crisis has disrupted international peace, created global oil price spikes and developed the concept of solar energy and the subsequent efforts to analyze the international system from a conflict situation can affect other subsystems that work and therefore systems whole.

Thus, the American bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1941 ended World War II. That's how his bombing in the Libyan city of Tripoli and Benghazi was done to prevent the government of Gaddafi.

Saddam Hussein's occupation of Kuwait by the system was painful, but the intervention of the UN and the American military alliance, came to restore the balance in the Gulf. The inability of the north to transfer technology to the south explains the inequality of third world economies.

Conflicts in Liberia, Sudan, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Burundi have disrupted the African system, but efforts by ECOMOG, the AU, the USA and the UN continue to restore balance.


Modernization Theory

This theory emphasizes that the participation of the third world in the world economy through such means of foreign trade, foreign investment, and foreign loans will change the developing countries and Europe and North America.

This argument is based on the idea that participation in the world economy by developing countries will stimulate increased productivity and economic development.

Also, the role of the state in the third world will expand, the middle class will grow, jobs will be better organized, and investment in education, health and social services will increase significantly.

This doctrine is consistent with the third world philosophy of development since independence and with the exception of some of the measures to address the full acceptance of the ideological system; it is still at the heart of their development plan.

It is on this basis that the third world states began to have high hopes for foreign investment, export promotion and various types of debt reduction, and their presence in control of their budgets.

It has been noticed since then that although the third country is participating in the international economic system, its economy seems to be failing.

Despite the efforts to reform the theory by pointing out its weaknesses and internal weaknesses (corruption in the government, dysfunctional people in big companies and high officials) of the state, a group of Third World scholars, known as independentists, strongly attacked the idea.


Theory of International Interdependence (Globalization) Theory

This theory takes into account that international states work together rather than against each other (for what one has, others may not have enough to survive). And from the small European countries that are free and independent, the world has developed into a complete international system that is based on it called "global society". The composition of the political sector has tripled in this century, and is now closely related.

The nation-states of the world are highly dependent on their undistributed need for natural resources: - gold in Africa, oil in the Middle East, titanium in Oceania, tin in South America and technological expertise in the United States, Asia and Europe.

The most populous countries - China, India and the Commonwealth of Independent States (the former Soviet Union) - are affected, while the less developed countries, which account for two-thirds of the population in the world, there is a need for all products from it developed countries.

The importance of international exchange has increased the number of transactions between states.

Modern communication systems have accelerated the number of these contacts, making the world a global community - globalization. Countries can do better by negotiating trade and aid and sharing resources.

Indeed, a high standard of living is the ultimate goal of foreign policy. Therefore, the recognition of all states regarding the needs and interests of each other provides the only logical context in which international politics should be conducted.

An example of interdependence confronts war by saying that historically, war is a different thing than law and relations between states. Despite the great power of the nuclear alliance, it is difficult for them to carry out a conventional war effectively. For example, the United States did not go to war in Vietnam for various reasons.

The United States Army, which did not know civil war, could not fight under the compulsion of government orders; the impact on the national economy is a disaster and public opinion forces its president to refuse to stand for re-election; while the public opinion in other countries insulted the country like never before.

Therefore, the United States will need the support of other powers of the United Nations "Allied Forces" to continue the Gulf War in 1991 that led to Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait. Proponents of the dependency model would argue that most transactions between states are actually agreements that are negotiated in a relaxed, but competitive environment.

International schools are closely related to the theory of interdependence. The central thesis of this school is that the state (one-state) and the state system have failed, and self-interest takes precedence over the pursuit of security and human well-being. This is the result of rapid and continuous development in communications, transportation and military technology.

The bottom line of transnational interdependence reflects the spread of power in the international system where self-interest can act to prevent government policies and where the poor and vulnerable can "benefit from the trans-nationalization of technology to increase their destructive effect power.

 Read: Post Behaviouralsim in political Science

Talcott Parson's Theory  

According to Talcott Persons, if social balance is to be maintained, four important factors must be effective:

1. Management of standards - the ability of the system to ensure the production of its own basic standards, principles and standards. Families and families do this work.

2. Support in the environment and change in the area of ​​scientific and technological development.

3. Achievement of goals - the ability of the system to achieve the goals that the system accepts or sets itself. Government and government accomplish this.

4. Integration of various functions and subsystems into a unified and coordinated system. This is achieved through traditional systems, e.g Communication, religion and education.

According to Parsons, the creation of common values, which transcend national boundaries, is essential to the international system. Parsons saw the need to develop a formal agreement between the participants in international politics regarding institutions and processes for solving problems and conflicts.


Finally, what should be of interest to students of international politics is that the process of the process helps us understand the various relationships that lead to decision-making in foreign policy and political alliances. Other systematic research scholars include David Easton, Karl Deutsch, Gabriel Almond, David Spiro, Richard Rosecrans, George Modelski, and Morton Kaplan.

We discuss systems theory in detail, including Talcott Parson's social equilibrium theory and its application to the study of international relations.

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