What is Peacekeeping? and Its Roles

 

What is Peacekeeping? and Its Roles


Peacekeeping has proven to be one of the most effective tools available to the UN to help host countries transition from conflict to peace.

Peacekeeping has unique capabilities, including legitimacy, burden sharing, and the ability to deploy and support military and police forces from around the world, linking them with local peacekeepers to promote diversity. 

UN peacekeepers provide security and political and peace support to help countries make the difficult transition from conflict to peace.

Three basic principles guide United Nations peacekeeping operations:

• Consent of third parties

• Impartiality

• Do not use force except in personal defense and security of warrant.

Peacekeeping has evolved and over the past two decades has been incorporated into many arrangements. There are currently twelve United Nations peacekeeping missions deployed on three continents.

Today's various peacekeeping operations are called not only to support peace and security, but also to support the political process, protect civilians, help in disarmament, disarmament and military retreat; supporting the organization of elections, protecting and promoting human rights and assisting in the restoration of the rule of law.

Success is not guaranteed, as UN peacekeeping is almost a definition of going into a physically and politically difficult environment. However, we have amassed a remarkable record of success in our 60 years of existence, including winning the Nobel Peace Prize.

Peacekeeping is always dynamic and evolving in the face of new challenges. Former Secretary General Ban Ki-moon established a 17-member independent High-Level Panel on UN Peace Operations to conduct a comprehensive review of the current state of UN peace operations and the emerging needs of the future.

 

What is Peacekeeping?

Peacekeeping refers to the deployment of national or international forces for the purpose of helping to control and resolve armed conflicts between or within states. Most peacekeeping operations are carried out under the authority of the United Nations (UN) and are often led by the United Nations, but local peacekeeping operations can also be carried out and, in some cases, States have undertaken such operations.

Peacekeeping forces are normally deployed with the consent of the parties to a conflict and in support of a ceasefire or other agreed peace measures.

Peacekeeping forces are therefore generally unarmed or lightly armed and use the minimum force necessary and only exceptionally. Enforced peace refers to the use of military means to enforce peace against the will of conflicting parties when, for example, a ceasefire breaks down.

Peace enforcement is often beyond the capabilities of peacekeeping forces, so it is best done by heavily armed forces. One of the most successful innovations in the United Nations system is the creation of a peacekeeping mission.

 


Peacekeeping is one of the many functions of the United Nations to support international peace and security around the world

 Other activities are:

·   Conflict Prevention and Mediation

·   Peacemaking

·   Peace Enforcement

·   peace Building

Conflict prevention, peace-making, peace-keeping and peace-enforcement are often not organized systematically or systematically. Experience has shown that they should be seen to go hand in hand. If they are used in small pieces or isolated, they do not provide the necessary comprehensive process to solve the causes of conflict and reduce the possibility of re-emergence of conflict.

 

Conflict Prevention

Conflict prevention includes political measures to prevent inter-state or intra-state conflict and conflict from escalating into conflict.

It includes early warning, information gathering and careful analysis of the cause of the conflict. Anti-conflict operations may include the use of the "good offices" of the Secretary-General, anti-conflict operations by United Nations officials or conflict mediation by the Department of State.

 

Peacemaking

Peacemaking generally involves a process to resolve ongoing conflicts and also involves political processes to bring conflicting parties to an agreement. The UN Secretary-General can use the "facilitated agency" to resolve the dispute. Peacemakers can also be ministers, governments, state organizations, regional organizations or the United Nations. Peacemaking efforts can also be done by government officials, non-government organizations, or private individuals.

 

Peace Enforcement

Peace enforcement involves the application of coercive measures, including the use of military force. It requires the authorization of the Security Council.

It is used to restore international peace and security in situations where the Security Council decides to act in the face of threats to peace, violations of peace or aggression. The Council may use, as appropriate, regional bodies and institutions for the implementation of laws under its jurisdiction and in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

 

Peace Building

Peace building aims to reduce the risk of relapse or return to conflict by strengthening national capacity at all levels for conflict management and laying the foundations for peace and sustainable development. It is a complex and long-term process to create the necessary conditions for lasting peace. The peace process looks at the main issues that affect public services in the state and strengthen the state's power to perform its duties efficiently and effectively.

 


Role of Peacekeeping or the mission of Peacekeeping

The line between conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peace law and peace enforcement is becoming increasingly blurred. Peace work is not always a one-size-fits-all job.

Although UN peacekeeping missions are deployed to support the implementation of cease-fires or peace agreements, they are often required to play an important role in peacemaking efforts and may be involved in peace-building activities in time.

Today's various peacekeeping operations support the political process, protect civilians, assist in the disarmament, demobilization and rehabilitation of ex-combatants; supporting the organization of elections, protecting and promoting human rights and assisting in the restoration of the rule of law.

UN peacekeeping operations can use force to defend themselves, protect their rights and protect civilians, especially in situations where states are unable to provide security and maintain public order.



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